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【速搜问答】TrueNAS词汇表

问答 admin 3天前 11次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

TrueNAS 是一种非常复杂的软件,它将许多不同的开源解决方案组合到一个紧密结合的软件包中。尽管 TrueNAS 是为提高用户友好性而设计的,并且一直在朝着这个方向不断发展,但仍建议您学习以下这些术语和概念来提高您理解和配置软件的能力。

Truenas is a very complex software that combines many different open source solutions into a tightly integrated package. Although truenas is designed to improve user friendliness and has been developing in this direction, it is recommended that you learn the following terms and concepts to improve your ability to understand and configure software.

一般概念

General concept

【Operating System (OS)】操作系统(OS):操作系统(OS)是管理计算机硬件、软件资源,并为计算机程序提供通用服务的系统软件。

Operating system (OS): operating system (OS) is a system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides general services for computer programs.

【Open Source】开源:开源软件是一种计算机软件,其中的源代码是根据许可发布的,版权所有者授予用户使用、研究、更改和分发该软件给任何人和出于任何目的的权利。

[open source] open source: open source software is a kind of computer software, in which the source code is distributed according to the license, and the copyright owner grants users the right to use, research, change and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

【Network Attach Storage (NAS)】网络附加存储(NAS):网络附加存储(NAS)是连接到计算机网络的计算机数据存储服务器,可提供对不同客户端组的数据访问。

[network attach storage (NAS)] network attached storage (NAS): network attached storage (NAS) is a computer data storage server connected to the computer network, which can provide data access to different client groups.

【Storage Area Network (SAN)】存储区域网络(SAN):存储区域网络(SAN)或存储网络是一种计算机网络,可提供对合并的块级数据存储的访问。SAN 主要用于从服务器访问存储设备,例如磁盘阵列和磁带库,以便该设备在操作系统中看起来像直接连接的存储。

[storage area network (SAN)] storage area network (SAN): storage area network (SAN) or storage network is a kind of computer network, which can provide access to combined block level data storage. San is mainly used to access storage devices from servers, such as disk arrays and tape libraries, so that the devices look like directly connected storage in the operating system.

【Software as a Service (SaaS)】软件即服务(SaaS):软件即服务(SaaS)是一种软件许可和交付模型,在该模型中,软件是基于订阅许可的,并且是集中托管的。它有时被称为“按需软件”。

[software as a service (SaaS)] software as a service (SaaS): software as a service (SaaS) is a software licensing and delivery model, in which software is based on subscription licensing and centrally managed. It is sometimes called “software on demand.”.

【Storage】存储:计算机数据存储是一种由计算机组件和用于保留数字数据的记录介质组成的技术。

Storage: computer data storage is a technology composed of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.

【File System】文件系统:文件系统控制数据的存储和检索方式。如果没有文件系统,放置在存储介质中的数据将是一个庞大的数据主体,无法分辨一个数据在哪里停止以及下一个数据在哪里开始。

File system: the file system controls the storage and retrieval of data. If there is no file system, the data placed in the storage medium will be a huge data body, unable to distinguish where one data stops and where the next data starts.

【Networking】网络:计算机网络是使用通用通信协议进行数字互联一组计算机,目的是共享位于网络节点上或由网络节点提供的资源。

Network: a computer network is a group of computers that are digitally interconnected using a common communication protocol, with the purpose of sharing resources that are located on or provided by network nodes.

【Sharing】共享:文件共享是多个系统网络中计算机数据或空间的公共或私有共享。

Sharing: file sharing is the public or private sharing of computer data or space in multiple system networks.

【Virtualization】虚拟化:虚拟化是指创建某物的虚拟(而非物理)版本的行为,包括虚拟计算机硬件平台、存储设备和计算机网络资源。

Virtualization: virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than physical) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platform, storage devices and computer network resources.

【Encryption】加密:在密码术中,加密是对信息进行编码的过程。此过程将信息的原始表示形式(称为纯文本)转换为密文的替代形式。理想情况下,只有授权方才能将密文解密回纯文本并访问原始信息。加密本身并不能防止干扰,但会防止拦截数据的人理解内容。

Encryption: in cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding information. This process transforms the original representation of information (called plain text) into an alternative form of ciphertext. Ideally, only the authorized party can decrypt the ciphertext back to plain text and access the original information. Encryption itself does not prevent interference, but it does prevent the content from being understood by the person who intercepts the data.

账户术语

Account terms

【root User】root 用户:“root”是默认情况下可以访问 Linux 和类 Unix 操作系统上所有命令和文件的主要帐户。它也称为 root 帐户、root 用户和/,或超级用户。这类似于 Windows 上的“管理员”帐户。

【root   User] root user: “root” is the main account that can access all commands and files on Linux and UNIX like operating systems by default. It is also called root account, root user and / or superuser. This is similar to the administrator account on windows.

【User】用户:“用户”帐户是 Linux 和类 Unix 操作系统上的附加帐户,其权限级别比“ root”帐户低。

[user] user: the “user” account is an additional account on Linux and UNIX like operating systems, and its privilege level is lower than that of the “root” account.

【Group】组:组是用户的集合。组的主要目的是轻松定义一组特权,例如在组内的多个用户之间共享对给定资源的读取、写入或执行权限。

Group: a group is a collection of users. The main purpose of a group is to easily define a set of privileges, such as sharing read, write, or execute permissions on a given resource among multiple users within the group.

存储术语

Storage terms

【Block Device】块设备:块设备是一种数据存储设备,支持在固定大小的块、扇区或群集中读取和写入数据。这些块的大小可以根据格式而有所不同。

Block device: a block device is a data storage device that supports reading and writing data in a fixed size block, sector or cluster. The size of these blocks can vary depending on the format.

【Self-Encrypting Drive (SED)】自加密驱动器(SED):SED 是一种可自动连续地对存储在其上数据进行加密的硬盘驱动器,它无需用户进行任何操作。

Self encrypting drive (SED): sed is a kind of hard disk drive that can automatically and continuously encrypt the data stored on it without any user operation.

【Zettabyte File System (ZFS)】:ZFS 是由 Sun Microsystems 设计的下一代文件系统,它消除了(即使不是全部)传统文件系统和硬件 RAID 设备中的大多数缺点。

Zettabyte file system (ZFS): ZFS is the next generation file system designed by Sun Microsystems, which eliminates (if not all) most of the shortcomings of traditional file systems and hardware raid devices.

【iSCSI】:iSCSI 代表 Internet 小型计算机系统接口。iSCSI 是在传输控制协议(TCP)之上工作的传输层协议。它通过在 TCP / IP 网络上传送 SCSI 命令来提供对存储设备的块级访问。

[iSCSI]: iSCSI represents the system interface of Internet small computer. ISCSI is a transport layer protocol that works on top of TCP. It provides block level access to storage devices by sending SCSI commands over TCP / IP networks.

ZFS

ZFS

【L2ARC】:L2ARC 有时称为 CACHE vdev。这是一类特殊的 vdev。ARC 代表“自适应替换缓存”,是一种缓存算法,它既可以跟踪缓存中的块,也可以跟踪最近从缓存中逐出的块。主 ARC 位于系统内存中。 L2ARC 是分配给磁盘的第二层 ARC,以扩展 ARC 功能。

[l2arc]: l2arc is sometimes called cache vdev. This is a special kind of vdev. Arc stands for “adaptive replacement cache”, which is a cache algorithm. It can track not only the blocks in the cache, but also the blocks recently evicted from the cache. The main arc is in system memory. L2arc is the second level arc assigned to disk to extend arc function.

【ZFS Datasets】ZFS 数据集:ZFS 数据集类似于常规的挂载文件系统。不仔细分辨,它似乎”只是一个文件夹”。但是,与传统的挂载文件系统不同,每个 ZFS 数据集都有其自己的属性集。

ZFS datasets: ZFS datasets are similar to conventional mount file systems. Without careful discrimination, it seems to be “just a folder”. However, different from the traditional mount file system, each ZFS dataset has its own attribute set.

【ZFS Pools】ZFS 池:池是由一个或多个 vdev 组成的文件系统容器。

ZFS pools: a pool is a file system container composed of one or more vdevs.

【ZFS vdev】:ZFS 虚拟设备。一个 ZFS 池由一个或多个 vdev 组成。可以使用单个磁盘或多个磁盘来创建 vdev。vdev 具有许多配置:单个磁盘、条带、RAIDz1、RAIDz2、RAIDz3 或镜像。

ZFS vdev: ZFS virtual device. A ZFS pool consists of one or more vdev. You can use a single disk or multiple disks to create vdev. Vdev has many configurations: single disk, stripe, raidz1, raidz2, raidz3, or mirror.

【ZFS zvols】:zvol 是代表块设备的数据集。

ZFS zvols: zvol is a data set representing block devices.

【ZIL】:ZIL 或 ZFS Intent Log 是一类特殊的 vdev。有时也称为 SLOG 或 Separate Intent Log。

ZIL: ZIL or ZFS intent log is a special kind of vdev. Sometimes called slog or separate intent log.

【Fusion Pool 】融合池:融合池或元数据 vdev 是一类特殊的 vdev。这个特殊的 vdev 可以存储元数据,例如文件位置和分配表。使用特殊的 vdev 将大大加快随机 I/O 的速度,并且可以将查找和访问文件所需的旋转磁盘 I/O 的平均数量减少多达一半。

【Fusion Pool  】 Fusion pool: fusion pool or metadata vdev is a special kind of vdev. This special vdev can store metadata, such as file location and allocation table. Using a special vdev will greatly speed up random I / O, and can reduce the average number of rotating disk I / O needed to find and access files by up to half.

【ZFS Snapshots】ZFS 快照:快照是文件系统或卷的只读副本。建立数据集的快照时,ZFS 会记录建立快照的时间戳,此时没有数据被复制,也没有消耗额外的存储空间。仅当文件系统中发生更改并且其中的数据与快照不同时,快照才开始使用其他存储。

ZFS snapshots: a snapshot is a read-only copy of a file system or volume. When creating a snapshot of a dataset, ZFS records the time stamp of creating the snapshot. At this time, no data is copied and no additional storage space is consumed. The snapshot starts to use other storage only when changes occur in the file system and the data in it is different from the snapshot.

【ZFS Scrub】ZFS 清理:清理是 ZFS 用来验证磁盘上数据的过程。读取所有数据,并根据计算出的校验和进行校验,以验证数据是否损坏。

ZFS scrub ZFS cleaning: cleaning is a process used by ZFS to verify data on disk. Read all the data and check according to the calculated check sum to verify whether the data is damaged.

【ZFS Resilver】:Resilver 是替换 zfs 池中的磁盘并且在替换的磁盘上重建数据的过程。

ZFS resilver: resilver is the process of replacing disks in ZFS pool and reconstructing data on the replaced disks.

【ZFS Replication 】ZFS 复制:将 ZFS 数据集复制到另一个数据集的过程。接收数据集可以在同一台计算机上,也可以在远程位置的另一台计算机上。复制与快照配合使用,因此仅需要将对存储数据的更改发送到接收数据集。

【ZFS Replication  】 ZFS replication: the process of copying a ZFS dataset to another dataset. The received data set can be on the same computer or on another computer at a remote location. Replication works with snapshots, so only changes to the stored data need to be sent to the receiving dataset.

【Cloud Sync】云同步:云同步是将 TrueNAS 配置为与 Amazon S3、Google Cloud 和 Microsft Azure 等云存储服务发送、接收或同步数据。

[cloud sync] cloud synchronization: truenas is configured to send, receive or synchronize data with Amazon S3, Google cloud, microsft azure and other cloud storage services.

网络术语

Internet Terms

【Certificate Authority (CA)】证书颁发机构(CA):证书颁发机构或 CA 是颁发数字证书的实体。 数字证书通过证书的指定标题来证明公钥的所有权。

[Certificate Authority (CA)] certification authority (CA): a certification authority or CA is an entity that issues digital certificates. Digital certificate certifies the ownership of the public key by the specified title of the certificate.

【Certificate】证书:证书是用于证明公钥所有权的电子文档。证书包括有关密钥的信息、有关其所有者身份的信息以及已验证证书的实体的数字签名。

Certificate: a certificate is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key. A certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner, and the digital signature of the entity that has verified the certificate.

【Virtual Private Network (VPN)】虚拟专用网络(VPN):虚拟专用网络(VPN)将专用网络扩展到整个公用网络,并使用户能够跨公用网络共享或发送和接收数据,就好像他们的计算设备直接连接到专用网络一样。

[virtual private network (VPN)] virtual private network (VPN): virtual private network (VPN) extends the private network to the whole public network, and enables users to share or send and receive data across the public network, just as their computing devices are directly connected to the private network.

【Interface】接口:接口是计算机系统的两个或多个不同组件交换信息的边界。交换可以在软件、计算机硬件、外围设备、人等之间进行。网络接口(例如 LAN 端口或 wifi)有助于在两个系统之间交换数据。诸如鼠标或键盘之类的人机接口设备(HID)允许人员与系统进行交互;诸如 USB 之类的硬件接口允许在计算机和另一台设备之间交换信息。

Interface: interface is the boundary of information exchange between two or more different components of a computer system. The exchange can be carried out among software, computer hardware, peripheral equipment, people, etc. Network interfaces, such as LAN ports or WiFi, help to exchange data between two systems. Human machine interface devices (HID) such as mouse or keyboard allow people to interact with the system; Hardware interfaces such as USB allow the exchange of information between a computer and another device.

【Default Route】默认路由:默认路由是 IP 网络的配置,当路由表或其他路由机制中没有下一跳主机的特定地址可用时,该 IP 网络将为数据包建立转发规则。

Default route: the default route is the configuration of the IP network. When no specific address of the next hop host is available in the routing table or other routing mechanisms, the IP network will establish forwarding rules for packets.

【namserver】名称服务器:名称服务器是指域名系统(DNS)的服务器组件。名称服务器提供对针对目录服务的查询的响应,该目录服务通常将人类可读的基于文本的标识符转换为数字标识或寻址组件。

[namserver] name server: name server refers to the server component of the domain name system (DNS). The name server provides a response to a query for a directory service that typically converts a human readable text-based identifier into a digital identifier or addressing component.

【Domain Name System】域名系统:域名系统(DNS)是用于连接到 Internet 或专用网络的计算机、服务或其他资源的分层和分散式命名系统。

[domain name system] domain name system (DNS) is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers, services or other resources connected to the Internet or private network.

【IP Address】IP 地址:Internet 协议地址(IP 地址)是分配给连接到使用 Internet 协议进行通信的计算机网络的每个设备的数字标签。IPv4 地址为十进制,而 IPv6 地址为十六进制。

[IP address] IP address: Internet protocol address (IP address) is a digital label assigned to each device connected to a computer network using internet protocol for communication. The IPv4 address is decimal, while the IPv6 address is hexadecimal.

【Hostname】主机名:主机名是分配给连接到计算机网络的设备的标签,用于以各种形式的电子通信来标识该设备。

Host name: a host name is a label assigned to a device connected to a computer network, which is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication.

【NFS】:网络文件系统(NFS)是最初由 Sun Microsystems 开发的一种分布式文件系统协议,它允许客户端计算机上的用户通过计算机网络访问文件,就像访问本地存储一样。

NFS: network file system (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It allows users on client computers to access files through computer network, just like accessing local storage.

【SMB】:SMB,有时也称为通用 Internet 文件系统(CIFS),是一种通信协议,用于提供对网络上节点之间的文件、打印机和串行端口的共享访问。 它最初是由 IBM 在 80 年代初设计的。

[SMB]: SMB, sometimes also known as CIFS, is a communication protocol used to provide shared access to files, printers and serial ports between nodes on the network. It was originally designed by IBM in the early 1980s.

【Active Directory】活动目录:活动目录(AD)是 Microsoft 为 Windows 域网络开发的目录服务。活动目录使用轻型目录访问协议、Microsoft 版本的 Kerberos 和 DNS

Active Directory: Active Directory (AD) is a directory service developed by Microsoft for Windows domain network. Active directory uses lightweight directory access protocol, Microsoft version of Kerberos and DNS.

【DDNS】:动态 DNS(DDNS)是一种实时自动更新域名系统(DNS)中名称服务器的方法,它使用其配置的主机名、地址或其他信息的活动 DDNS 配置。(译者注:简言之就是把互联网域名指向可变 IP 地址的系统)。

[DDNS]: Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a real-time method to automatically update the name server in the domain name system (DNS). It uses the active DDNS configuration of its configured host name, address or other information( Translator’s note: in short, it’s a system that points Internet domain names to variable IP addresses.

【LDAP】:轻型目录访问协议是一种开放的,与供应商无关的行业标准应用程序协议,用于通过 IP 网络访问和维护分布式目录信息服务。

[LDAP]: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an open, vendor independent industry standard application protocol, which is used to access and maintain distributed directory information services through IP network.

【DHCP】:动态主机配置协议(DHCP)是 IP 网络上使用的网络管理协议。DHCP 服务器为网络上的每个设备动态分配 IP 地址和其他网络配置参数,使得设备之间可以相互通信。

[DHCP]: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used in IP networks. DHCP server dynamically allocates IP address and other network configuration parameters for each device on the network, so that devices can communicate with each other.

【LLDP】:链路层发现协议(LLDP)是网络设备使用的链路层协议,用于在基于 IEEE 802 技术(主要是有线以太网)的局域网上通告其身份、功能和邻居

[lldp]: Link Layer Discovery Protocol (lldp) is a link layer protocol used by network devices, which is used to announce their identity, function and neighbors on LAN based on IEEE 802 Technology (mainly wired Ethernet)


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