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【速搜问答】计算机组件是什么

问答 admin 2周前 (04-19) 26次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

计算机是由硬件系统和软件系统两部分组成的。计算机组件一般是指组合计算机所需的硬件。计算机组件一般可以分为主板、电源供应器、存储控制器、可携存储设备、内置存储器等。这些组件按照一定的规则组成计算机的硬件系统。

Computer is composed of hardware system and software system. Computer components generally refer to the hardware required for the combination of computers. Computer components can be divided into motherboard, power supply, storage controller, portable storage device, built-in memory, etc. These components constitute the computer hardware system according to certain rules.

计算机是由硬件系统(hardware system)和软件系统(software system)两部分组成的。计算机组件一般是指组合计算机所需的硬件。计算机组件一般可以分为主板、电源供应器、存储控制器、可携存储设备、内置存储器等。这些组件按照一定的规则组成计算机的硬件系统。

Computer is composed of hardware system and software system. Computer components generally refer to the hardware required for the combination of computers. Computer components can be divided into motherboard, power supply, storage controller, portable storage device, built-in memory, etc. These components constitute the computer hardware system according to certain rules.

简介

brief introduction

计算机由存储器、运算器、控制器、输入设备和输出设备五大基本部件组成。计算机组件一般是指组合计算机所需的硬件。计算机组件就是实现计算机五大基本部件的的具体化。不同类型的计算机的组件是有所差别的,这和很多因素有关,如技术、工艺、价格等。

The computer is composed of memory, arithmetic unit, controller, input device and output device. Computer components generally refer to the hardware required for the combination of computers. Computer component is the materialization of the five basic components of computer. Different types of computer components are different, which is related to many factors, such as technology, technology, price and so on.

主板

a main board

也称主机板,是电脑系统中最大的一块电路板。主板的类型和档次决定着整个微机系统的类型和档次,主板的性能影响着整个微机系统的性能。主板上安装有控制芯片组、BIOS 芯片和各种输入输出接口、键盘和面板控制开关接口、指示灯插接件、扩充插槽及直流电源供电接插件等元件。它们各司其责,将各种周边设备紧密地联系在一起。如果把 CPU 比作人的心脏,那么主板就可比作血管神经等循环系统等。有了主板,CPU 才可以控制诸如硬盘、软驱、键盘、鼠标、内存等周边设备。目前的主板结构主要有 AT 和 ATX 结构,不同结构的 CPU 所用的主板不一定相同。一些高价主板也集成红外通讯技术、蓝牙和 802.11(Wi-Fi)等功能。

Also known as motherboard, it is the largest circuit board in the computer system. The type and grade of the main board determine the type and grade of the whole microcomputer system, and the performance of the main board affects the performance of the whole microcomputer system. The main board is equipped with control chipset, BIOS chip and various input and output interfaces, keyboard and panel control switch interface, indicator light connector, expansion slot, DC power supply connector and other components. They have their own responsibilities and closely link various peripheral devices. If the CPU is compared to the human heart, then the motherboard can be compared to blood vessels, nerves and other circulatory systems. With the motherboard, CPU can control peripheral devices such as hard disk, floppy drive, keyboard, mouse and memory. At present, the main structure of the motherboard is at and ATX structure, different structure of the CPU motherboard is not necessarily the same. Some high priced motherboards also integrate infrared communication technology, Bluetooth and 802.11 (Wi Fi) and other functions.

电源供应器

Power supply

计算机电源供应单元(PC Power supply unit,常直接以电源供应器称之,简称 PSU 或电源),是电脑的一种电能转换类的电源(有别于电池供电类的电源),负责将标准交流电转成低压稳定的直流电,给电脑内其它的组件所使用。目前一般的电脑电源供应器都是交换式电源供应器,输入电压自动适应用家所在地点市电参数(而某些产品可能需要用家调整电压切换开关)。不少计算机电源还配备有短路保护,过载保护、过压保护、欠压保护、过流保护、温度保护等功能,保证电源供应器及其供电的设备的正常稳定工作,其中不少保护功能被列为行业标准。另外,一些功率较大的电源供应器,也会配备被动(无源)式或主动(有源)式的功率因数修正(PFC)技术,而这个也成为行业标准。无源功率因数修正通常是采用电感电容补偿电路或是填谷式电路实现,功率因数通常能达到 0.7 至 0.9;而有源功率因数修正则更为复杂但可获得最高达 0.99 的高功率因数。为了控制电源供应器的发热,也有电源转换效率的下限限制,像是非正式行业认证的 80 PLUS 规范认证。

Computer power supply unit (PC power supply unit, often referred to as PSU or power supply) is a kind of power conversion type of computer (different from battery power supply), which is responsible for converting standard AC into low-voltage stable DC for other components in the computer. At present, the general computer power supply is a switching power supply, the input voltage automatically adapts to the user’s local power parameters (and some products may need the user to adjust the voltage switch). Many computer power supplies are also equipped with short-circuit protection, overload protection, over-voltage protection, under voltage protection, over-current protection, temperature protection and other functions to ensure the normal and stable operation of the power supply and its power supply equipment, many of which are listed as industry standards. In addition, some high-power power power supplies will also be equipped with passive (passive) or active (active) power factor correction (PFC) technology, which has become the industry standard. Passive power factor correction is usually realized by inductor capacitor compensation circuit or valley filling circuit, and the power factor can reach 0.7 to 0.9, while active power factor correction is more complex, but it can achieve the highest power factor of 0.99. In order to control the heating of power supply, there is also a lower limit of power conversion efficiency, such as 80 plus standard certification of informal industry certification.

现时常用的 ATX 规格 PC 电源供应器输入电压一般为 100V 至 250V 之间自动适应,输入交流电频率频率 50Hz 或 60Hz,输出 12V、5V 及 3.3V 三种稳定的直流电压。最新的 ATX 规格是 2008 年中发表的 ATX 2.31 版。

At present, the input voltage of the commonly used ATX PC power supply is generally between 100V and 250V, with automatic adaptation. The input AC frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz, and the output voltage is 12V, 5V and 3.3V. The latest ATX specification is ATX version 2.31 released in mid-2008.

存储控制器

Storage controller

常见的存储控制器有适配器,如声卡、显卡。适配器(Interface Card,Adapter)是计算机和周边硬件的沟通桥梁,举例:屏幕、键盘、光盘驱动器、打印机、硬盘……等,每一样都是通过适配器传输数据才可运作。现在计算机多有内置适配器,如有需要才会再加外接适配器。

Common memory controller has adapter, such as sound card, graphics card. Adapter is a bridge between computer and peripheral hardware, such as screen, keyboard, CD-ROM drive, printer, hard disk And so on, each one is transmitted through the adapter to operate. Most computers now have built-in adapters, and external adapters will be added if necessary.

声卡是多媒体电脑中用来处理声音的接口卡。声卡可以把来自话筒、收音机、录音机、激光唱机(镭射影碟)等设备的语音、音乐等声音变成数字信号交给电脑处理,并以文件形式存盘,还可以把数字信号还原成为真实的声音输出。声卡尾部的接口从机箱后侧伸出,上面有连接麦克风、音箱、游戏杆和 MIDI 设备的接口。

Sound card is an interface card used to process sound in multimedia computer. The sound card can turn the voice, music and other sounds from microphone, radio, tape recorder, CD player (laser disc) and other equipment into digital signals for computer processing, and save them in the form of files. It can also restore the digital signals into real sound output. The interface at the end of the sound card extends from the back of the chassis, and there are interfaces for connecting the microphone, speaker, joystick and MIDI device.

显卡(Video card、Display card、Graphics card、Video adapter),是个人电脑最基本组成部分之一,用途是将计算机系统所需要的显示信息进行转换驱动显示器,并向显示器提供逐行或隔行扫描信号,控制显示器的正确显示,是连接显示器和个人电脑主板的重要组件,是“人机对话”的重要设备之一。

Video card, display card, graphics card, video card Adapter is one of the most basic components of personal computer. It is used to convert the display information needed by the computer system, drive the display, provide progressive or interlaced scanning signal to the display, and control the correct display of the display. It is an important component connecting the display and the main board of personal computer, and is one of the important devices of “human-computer dialogue”.

可携存储设备

Portable storage device

CD

CD

激光唱片,又称镭射唱片(Compact Disc,CD),是一种用以存储数字数据的光学盘片,原被开发用作存储数字音乐。CD 在 1982 年面世,至今仍然是商业录音的标准存储媒体。

Compact disc, also known as compact disc (CD), is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originally developed to store digital music. CD came out in 1982 and is still the standard storage medium for commercial recording.

在 CD 尚未发明之前,音响系统都是属于模拟信号,音乐的来源大多是 30 公分直径的密纹唱片、收音机以及录音机等,CD 发明之前就没有数字音响。

Before the invention of CD, audio systems were all analog signals. Most of the sources of music were 30 cm diameter compact discs, radios and tape recorders. Before the invention of CD, there was no digital audio.

快闪存储器

flash memory

快闪存储器(英语:flash memory),是一种电子式可清除程序化只读存储器的形式,允许在操作中被多次擦或写的存储器。这种科技主要用于一般性数据存储,以及在电脑与其他数字产品间交换传输数据,如储存卡与 U 盘。闪存是一种特殊的、以宏块抹写的 EEPROM。早期的闪存进行一次抹除,就会清除掉整颗芯片上的数据。

Flash memory (English: flash memory), is an electronic form of erasable programmable read-only memory, which allows multiple erasures or writes in operation. This technology is mainly used for general data storage and data exchange and transmission between computers and other digital products, such as memory cards and USB flash drives. Flash memory is a special EEPROM which is written by macroblock. In the early days of flash memory, the data on the whole chip would be erased by one erasure.

闪存的成本远较可以字节为单位写入的 EEPROM 来的低,也因此成为非易失性固态存储最重要也最广为采纳的技术。像是 PDA、笔记本电脑、数字随身听、数码相机与手机上均可见到闪存。此外,闪存在游戏主机上的采用也日渐增加,藉以取代存储游戏数据用的 EEPROM 或带有电池的 SRAM。

The cost of flash memory is much lower than that of EEPROM which can be written in bytes, so it has become the most important and widely adopted technology of nonvolatile solid-state storage. Flash memory can be seen on PDAs, laptops, digital Walkman, digital cameras and mobile phones. In addition, flash memory is increasingly used in game console to replace EEPROM or SRAM with battery for storing game data.

闪存是非易失性的内存。这表示单就保存数据而言,它是不需要消耗电力的。与硬盘相比,闪存也有更佳的动态抗震性。这些特性正是闪存被移动设备广泛采用的原因。闪存还有一项特性:当它被制成储存卡时非常可靠──即使浸在水中也足以抵抗高压与极端的温度。闪存的写入速度往往明显慢于读取速度。

Flash memory is non-volatile memory. This means that in terms of data storage alone, it does not need to consume power. Compared with hard disk, flash memory also has better dynamic seismic performance. These characteristics are the reason why flash memory is widely used in mobile devices. Flash memory has another feature: when it’s made into a memory card, it’s very reliable – even if it’s immersed in water, it can resist high pressure and extreme temperature. The write speed of flash memory is often significantly slower than the read speed.

虽然闪存在技术上属于 EEPROM,但是“EEPROM”这个字眼通常特指非快闪式、以小区块为清除单位的 EEPROM。它们典型的清除单位是字节。因为老式的 EEPROM 抹除循环相当缓慢,相形之下快闪记体较大的抹除区块在写入大量数据时带给其显著的速度优势。闪存最常见的封装方式是 TSOP48 和 BGA,在逻辑接口上的标准则由于厂商阵营而区分为两种:ONFI 和 Toggle。手机上的闪存常常以 eMMC 的方式存在。

Although flash technically belongs to EEPROM, the word “EEPROM” usually refers to non flash EEPROM with small block as clearing unit. They are typically cleared in bytes. Because the erasing cycle of the old EEPROM is rather slow, in contrast, the larger erasing block of the flash memory gives it a significant speed advantage when writing a large amount of data. The most common packaging methods of flash memory are TSOP48 and BGA, and the logical interface standards can be divided into two types: ONFI and toggle. Flash memory on mobile phones often exists in the form of EMMC.

移动硬盘

mobile hard disk drive

移动硬盘,原是用于笔记本电脑的专用小型硬盘,由于其轻便、易携的特色,也用于不同电脑之间发送文件。另外普通的电脑硬盘通过硬盘盒或其他转换接口设备,也能做到移动硬盘的效果。通常采用 USB 接口与计算机连接,现也有以 eSATA、USB 3.0(A/B 以及最新的 C 型)、ThunderBolt(MiniDP、USB-C 连接端口)接口与计算机接入的。

Mobile hard disk, originally used to be a special small hard disk for notebook computers, is also used to send files between different computers because of its light and portable features. In addition, ordinary computer hard disk can also achieve the effect of mobile hard disk through hard disk box or other conversion interface devices. Generally, USB interface is used to connect with computer. Now, eSATA, USB 3.0 (A / B and the latest type C) and thunderbolt (minidp, usb-c connection port) are used to connect with computer.

内置存储器

Built in memory

硬盘

Hard disk

硬盘是固定在计算机中 的外部存储器,是外存储器中最重要的磁存 储装置,在大、中、小型计算机中都要配置 硬盘,以提高计算机的功能。硬盘技术涉及 到精密机械加工、微电子学、计算机技术、磁 学、力学、化工工艺和新材料等学科,是现 代科学技术高度密集的产品。

Hard disk is the external memory fixed in the computer, and it is the most important magnetic storage device in the external memory. In large, medium and small computers, hard disk should be configured to improve the function of the computer. Hard disk technology involves precision machining, microelectronics, computer technology, magnetism, mechanics, chemical technology, new materials and other disciplines. It is a highly intensive product of modern science and technology.

早期的硬盘是卧式固定头多片盘,小型 出现后开发出单片可换式硬盘。后来开发的 浮动可移动磁头的单片和多片硬盘成为了硬 磁盘的典型结构,进入 80 年代后,微机不断 发展,硬盘的尺寸逐步减小,而其容量不断 增加,其经历了从 2.03dm (8in)、1.33dm (5.25in)、8.26cm (3.25in) 到 6.4cm (2.5in) 发展,现在主要使用的是 8.26cm (3.25in) 和 6.4cm (2.5in)。

The early hard disk is a horizontal fixed head multi disk, small after the development of a single replaceable hard disk. Later, the single-chip and multi chip hard disk with floating removable head developed has become the typical structure of hard disk. In the 1980s, with the continuous development of microcomputer, the size of hard disk is gradually reduced, while its capacity is increasing. It has experienced the development from 2.03dm (8in), 1.33dm (5.25IN), 8.26cm (3.25in) to 6.4cm (2.5in), and now mainly uses 8.26cm (3.25in) and 6.4cm (2.5in) (2.5in)。

硬盘的基本结构主要包括:盘片、磁头、 主轴电机、磁头定位机构、盘腔、空气净化 器、接口电路和电源。盘片一般用铝合金或 玻璃作为盘基,盘面涂有一层很薄的磁性材 料。盘片安装在一个以恒定高速旋转的主轴 上,转速通常为 3600r/min,在每个盘面的 上、下两面均配有一个读写磁头,这些磁头 装在一个磁头定位机构上,载着磁头内向主 轴或外向盘片的边缘移动。

The basic structure of hard disk mainly includes: disk, head, spindle motor, head positioning mechanism, disk cavity, air purifier, interface circuit and power supply. Generally, aluminum alloy or glass is used as the disk base, and the disk surface is coated with a thin layer of magnetic material. The disk is mounted on a spindle rotating at a constant high speed, and the speed is usually 3600r / min. a read-write head is installed on the upper and lower sides of each disk. These heads are mounted on a head positioning mechanism, carrying the head to move towards the edge of the spindle or outward disk.

硬盘的主要优点:(1)非常大的存储量, 其容量已可达千万兆以上; (2) 采用随机存 取方式,平均存取时间极短,实现了快速存 取; (3) 由于记录密度高和磁盘转速快,硬 盘的传输率很高; (4) 硬盘的结构设计保证 了它有高的可靠性和工作稳定性,一般无故 障时间可达 8000~12000h,误码率低于磁带 和软磁盘一个数量级。

The main advantages of hard disk are: (1) very large storage capacity, its capacity has reached more than 10 million megabytes; (2) using random access mode, the average access time is very short, realizing fast access; (3) due to the high recording density and fast disk speed, the transmission rate of hard disk is very high; (4) the structural design of hard disk ensures that it has high reliability and working stability, and the general fault free time is up to 100% The bit error rate is one order of magnitude lower than that of magnetic tape and floppy disk.

磁盘阵列

disk array

由多台磁盘存储器和阵列控制器构成的一种大容量、快速的联机存储系统。在阵列控制器的统一控制和组织下,各个磁盘存储器可并行运行,因此可对磁盘阵列进行并行存取或交叉存取。与单台大容量磁盘存储器相比,磁盘阵列有存储容量大、传输率高、吞吐量大、可靠性高、存取速度快等优点。磁盘阵列可由几台磁盘到几百台磁盘组成。它的性能价格比优于单台大容量磁盘存储器,因此近期发展很快。为满足存储容量与速度的要求,不但巨型计算机、大型计算机,乃至小型计算机、工作站都广泛采用磁盘阵列。为了提高廉价磁盘冗余阵列(RAID)的容错能力及可靠性,采取了多种技术,例如,镜象容错技术、汉明检验码技术、奇偶检验码技术等。阵列控制器一般由微处理器、高速缓冲存储器和接口部件等组成,其任务是接收主机命令,解释和分解命令、形成控制信号,回收磁盘存储器的工作状态信号,协调磁盘阵列各部分的工作等。磁盘阵列存储技术已用于构成 CD ROM 阵列,以作后备存储器之用。

A large capacity and fast on-line storage system composed of multiple disk memories and array controllers. Under the unified control and organization of the array controller, each disk memory can run in parallel, so the disk array can be accessed in parallel or interleaved. Compared with single large capacity disk memory, disk array has the advantages of large storage capacity, high transmission rate, high throughput, high reliability and fast access speed. A disk array can consist of several to hundreds of disks. Its performance price ratio is better than that of a single large capacity disk memory, so it has developed rapidly in the near future. In order to meet the requirements of storage capacity and speed, disk array is widely used not only in supercomputers, large computers, but also in minicomputers and workstations. In order to improve the fault-tolerant ability and reliability of low-cost raid, many technologies are adopted, such as mirror fault-tolerant technology, Hamming check code technology, parity check code technology and so on. Array controller is generally composed of microprocessor, cache memory and interface components. Its task is to receive host commands, interpret and decompose commands, form control signals, recover working status signals of disk memory, and coordinate the work of all parts of disk array. Disk array storage technology has been used to form a CD-ROM array for backup storage.


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