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【速搜问答】电容灾难是什么

问答 admin 2周前 (04-19) 29次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

电容灾难(俗称电容爆)是指一些电子产品因使用寿命提早结束的电容器而造成的电器损毁现象,多发生在主板、显卡、日光灯稳定器及个人电脑的电源供应器上。

Capacitor disaster (commonly known as capacitor explosion) refers to the electrical damage caused by the capacitors whose service life ends earlier in some electronic products. It mostly occurs in the main board, graphics card, fluorescent lamp stabilizer and the power supply of personal computer.

电容爆浆是指一些电子产品因使用寿命提早结束的电容器而造成的电器损毁现象,多发生在主板、显卡、日光灯稳定器及个人电脑的电源供应器上。而电容灾难(Capacitor plague)指 1999 年至 2007 年间超出预期的非固态铝电解电容器故障率,尤其是某些台湾厂商的产品,由于电解质组成不良导致的腐蚀伴随产生气体,通常会使电容器因压力积聚而破裂。

Capacitor slurry explosion refers to the electrical damage caused by the capacitors whose service life ends earlier in some electronic products. It mostly occurs in the main board, graphics card, fluorescent lamp stabilizer and the power supply of personal computer. The capacitor disaster refers to the failure rate of non solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors that exceeded the expectation from 1999 to 2007. Especially for some products made in Taiwan, the corrosion caused by poor electrolyte composition is accompanied by the generation of gas, which usually leads to the rupture of capacitors due to pressure accumulation.

简介

brief introduction

电容灾难,俗称电容爆浆,是指在一些电子产品使用寿命提早结束的电容器所产生电器损毁的现象,通常较会发生在主板、显卡、日光灯稳定器与个人电脑的电源供应器。第一个有瑕疵的电容器发现于 1999 年,但此种电容器最常制造于 2000 年中,而当多数制造商得知此消息(通常使用产品一年多后会出现问题)进而修正缺失,但有些瑕疵电容还是在 2007 年初被使用。 由于瑕疵电容内错误的电解液成分会产生氢气,进而导致电容器膨胀变形,而且最终会使电解液释出。而有少部份的案例出现瑕疵电容会出现爆炸的状况发生。

Capacitor disaster, commonly known as capacitor slurry explosion, refers to the phenomenon of electrical damage caused by capacitors whose service life of some electronic products ends earlier. It usually occurs in the main board, graphics card, fluorescent lamp stabilizer and power supply of personal computer. The first defective capacitor was found in 1999, but this kind of capacitor was most often manufactured in the middle of 2000. When most manufacturers learned this news (problems usually occur after using the product for more than one year), they corrected the defects. However, some defective capacitors were still used in early 2007. Due to the wrong electrolyte composition in the defective capacitor, hydrogen will be produced, which will lead to the expansion and deformation of the capacitor, and eventually the electrolyte will be released. In a small number of cases, defective capacitors may explode.

影响方式

Mode of influence

最早发现在主板的瑕疵电容可追溯至 Socket 7 主板,而且影响时间所及最近制造出来的主板。主板厂商制造含瑕疵电容板的电容是来自于其他制造厂。这也不单单只出 PC 零组件上,第一代的 iMac G5 与部份 eMac 也受影响。

The first defective capacitance found on the motherboard can be traced back to socket 7 motherboard, and it affects the time of the recently manufactured motherboard. Motherboard manufacturers Manufacture capacitors with defects from other manufacturers. This is not only about PC components, but also the first generation IMAC G5 and some Emacs.

电容器已损坏的电源供应器当电容灾难大范围地影响桌上型电脑硬件时,此状况并没只限于该领域。在部份相机、网络交换器、音响配件、DVD 播放机等也都发现瑕疵电容。甚至有些汽车的 ECU 也发现使用这些电容。不过,电脑零件是最常发现这些电容的踪迹。

Power supply with damaged capacitor when the capacitor disaster affects the hardware of desktop computer in a large scale, this situation is not limited to this field. Defective capacitors were also found in some cameras, network switches, audio accessories, DVD players, etc. Even the ECU of some cars has found the use of these capacitors. However, these capacitors are most often found in computer parts.

这些使用了瑕疵电容的组件还是使很多人发怒,特别像是主板主要配置的高品质电容中有一两颗瑕疵电容,导致指控部份主板厂商此举为“有计划的损毁”。有个例子是这些瑕疵电容(通常会在半年内损毁)还是制造出来,且还是被制造厂选用进去。

These components with defective capacitors still make many people angry, especially one or two defective capacitors in the main high-quality capacitors of the motherboard, which leads to the accusation that some motherboard manufacturers have “planned damage”. One example is that these defective capacitors (usually damaged within half a year) are still manufactured and selected by manufacturers.

在 2005 年 5 月,有些迹象显示出在 iMac、英特尔、戴尔主板内有瑕疵的 Nichicon 电容是由于其他问题(填充过量电解液的电容)而导致,而并不是因为错误的电解液成分所造成。然而,正常的电容在系统的作用效果与自身的物理性质与瑕疵电容是一样的,不过还是要辨识出来,而且要修复它。(只有 Nichicon HM 与 HN 系列电容受影响)

In May 2005, there were signs that the defective Nichicon capacitors in iMac, Intel and Dell motherboards were caused by other problems (capacitance filled with excessive electrolyte), not by the wrong electrolyte composition. However, the effect of normal capacitance in the system is the same as its own physical properties and defective capacitance, but it still needs to be identified and repaired. (only Nichicon HM and HN series capacitors are affected)

征状

symptom

无论多细微的顶端膨胀,意味着该电容失效。检验电容最常用的方法就是用眼观察。瑕疵电容会表现以下几种征兆。

No matter how tiny the top expansion is, it means that the capacitor fails. The most common way to test capacitance is to observe with eyes. Defective capacitors can show the following symptoms.

电容顶端凸起。(只会在顶端有 T 字、Y 字、十字压力线表现。而压力线的设计是为了使爆炸的压力转为凸起裂开)。戴尔 Optiplex GX270s 系列个人电脑在重启时经常出现”Thermal Event”讯息。底端橡胶塞突出,因而导致电容底座弯曲。电容内的电解液(棕色黏性物质)漏出到主板上。电容顶端变形,看得到棕色物质,或是变形端有看得到的洞。有瑕疵的 Choyo 电容内的电解液漏出主板上。当电容使用时间变久,电容量会逐渐降低而 ESR(等效串联电阻值)会逐渐增加。这种情形发生后,电容就无法充分的提供内部的直流电至主板,造成系统不稳。而系统部份共同的征兆如下。

The top of the capacitor is convex. (only T-shaped, Y-shaped and cross pressure lines will appear at the top. The design of the pressure line is to make the explosion pressure turn into bulge. Dell OptiPlex gx270s series personal computers often appear “thermal event” message when they are restarted. The rubber plug at the bottom protrudes, causing the capacitor base to bend. The electrolyte (brown sticky substance) in the capacitor leaks out to the motherboard. The top of the capacitor is deformed and brown material can be seen, or there are visible holes at the deformed end. Electrolyte from the defective choyo capacitor leaked out of the motherboard. When the capacitor is used for a long time, the capacitance will gradually decrease and the ESR (equivalent series resistance) will gradually increase. After this situation occurs, the capacitor can not fully provide internal DC power to the motherboard, resulting in system instability. The common symptoms of the system are as follows.

有时候无法开机,必须按“重启”按钮或者重新启动。不稳的系统(经常当机、BSOD、内核错误(kernel panics)等),特别是该征兆发生频率随时间增长。CPU 核心电压或其他系统电压严重波动或超出范围,可能连带提升 CPU 温度。内存错误,而发生频率随时间增长。非人为自动重启。在主板内建显示,部份显示模式出现不稳画面。无法完成 POST,或刚完成即重启。

Sometimes you can’t start the machine, you have to press the “restart” button or restart it. Unstable systems (frequent downtime, BSOD, kernel panics, etc.), especially the frequency of this symptom increases with time. The CPU core voltage or other system voltage fluctuates seriously or exceeds the range, which may increase the CPU temperature. Memory errors occur more frequently over time. Non human automatic restart. Built in display on the motherboard, unstable pictures appear in some display modes. Unable to complete post or restart immediately after completion.

瑕疵的 Tayeh 电容在顶端的铝壳有变形现象。不像物理特征是显而易见的,很多系统状态可能会由于其他因素造成,像是使用坏的电源供应器、灰尘妨碍风扇运作、损坏的内存等其他硬件问题。通常不稳定的状况是当操作系统运作中,可能遇到的软件问题(像是部份的恶意软件、糟糕的驱动程式或软件),而且不是起因于硬件问题。如果这些征状发生,将主机壳开启,检查电容,特别注意 CPU 周围的电容,可立即检查电容状态。如果没有物理现象,示波器能够检验电容的电压,如果出现极端的电压波折表示著这颗电容并没有正常运作。

The defective tayeh capacitor is deformed in the aluminum shell at the top. Unlike the obvious physical characteristics, many system states may be caused by other factors, such as using a bad power supply, dust hindering fan operation, damaged memory and other hardware problems. Usually, the unstable situation is the software problems (such as some malicious software, bad drivers or software) that may be encountered during the operation of the operating system, and it is not caused by hardware problems. If these symptoms occur, turn on the main case, check the capacitance, pay special attention to the capacitance around the CPU, and check the capacitance status immediately. If there is no physical phenomenon, the oscilloscope can check the voltage of the capacitor. If there is an extreme voltage fluctuation, it means that the capacitor is not working properly.

产生瑕疵电容的原因

Causes of defective capacitance

制造瑕疵电容根本的原因是产业间谍的情报错误。部份台湾电解液厂窃取未完成的电解液成分,而且缺乏制造稳定电容所需成分。(非腐蚀性成分由于工业冲击并未公开),当瑕疵电容充电的时候,水性的电解液将会变的不稳定,进而产生氢气。由于这些电容是用铝壳将它封存,这些压力使得电容顶端开始变形,或封闭接头的橡胶被挤下来。直到当压力超过金属壳的伸展性以后,将会从橡胶底爆出来,或是从电容顶端爆出来。当一个电解电容器爆裂的时候,会出现爆炸声与一个嘶嘶声杂音,甚至是小爆炸。这个现象通常会使内部变得杂乱,而为了避免酸性的电解液进一步的侵蚀主板,一定要清除干净。

The root cause of manufacturing defects is the intelligence error of industrial spies. Some of Taiwan’s electrolyte factories steal unfinished electrolyte components and lack the components needed to manufacture stable capacitors. When the defective capacitor is charged, the aqueous electrolyte will become unstable and generate hydrogen. Because the capacitors are sealed with aluminum shell, the pressure makes the top of the capacitor begin to deform, or the rubber sealing the joint is squeezed down. Until when the pressure exceeds the extensibility of the metal shell, it will explode from the rubber bottom, or from the top of the capacitor. When an electrolytic capacitor bursts, there will be an explosion, a hissing noise, or even a small explosion. This phenomenon will usually make the internal become messy, and in order to avoid the further erosion of acidic electrolyte motherboard, be sure to clean.

电容检验失效的电容器一般都会造成像上述的系统不稳定的状况,有时候,失效的电容器将在主板上导致电压调节器失效。主要有二个理论可以解释为何发生此状况。

The failure of capacitor in capacitance test will cause the instability of the system as mentioned above. Sometimes, the failure of capacitor will lead to the failure of voltage regulator on the main board. There are two main theories to explain why this happens.

第一种较易懂的情况是这类失效的电容会有非常高的漏电流,过高负载的电压调节器会造成过热而失效。 第二种情况是当电容值减少且 ESR 值增加,电压调整器内的降压调节器为了补偿负载而增加交换频率。因为 MOSFET 在交换过渡期间会产生热量,频率增加而导致过热而失效。

The first is easy to understand that this kind of failure capacitor will have a very high leakage current, too high load voltage regulator will cause overheating and failure. In the second case, when the capacitance value decreases and the ESR value increases, the buck regulator in the voltage regulator increases the switching frequency to compensate the load. Because MOSFET will generate heat during the exchange transition, the frequency will increase and lead to overheating and failure.

从电脑电源供应器取出的电容,发现测试数值是异常的低。一颗失效的电容标示著 2200 µF,但是可能只能储存 75 µF 的电量。长时间的使用,50%的衰退是可以被预期的,但是不可能衰退到只剩 5%。降压交换调节器却会被如此低的电量使得稳定性大打折扣,而且调节器的电压波动可能会大于连结至 IC 的建议最大波动值。

The capacitance was taken out from the power supply of the computer. It was found that the test value was abnormally low. A failed capacitor marks 2200 & amp; micro; F, but may only store 75 & amp; micro; F. Over a long period of time, a 50% decline can be expected, but it is impossible to decline to only 5%. However, the stability of the buck switching regulator will be greatly reduced by such low power, and the voltage fluctuation of the regulator may be greater than the recommended maximum fluctuation value connected to the IC.

最普遍的情况是,当电压调节器坏掉时将会从电源供应直接传导至装置,导致从电源供应器输出的 12V 或 5V 电源直接输入至 CPU、北桥、内存及其他组件,而这些组件将烧毁。当主板发现使用有瑕疵的电容器就应该被拿出处理,直到修理完毕,避免进一步的损害。

The most common situation is that when the voltage regulator breaks down, it will conduct directly from the power supply to the device, resulting in the 12V or 5V power output from the power supply directly input to the CPU, North Bridge, memory and other components, and these components will be burned. When the motherboard found that the use of defective capacitors should be taken out of processing, until the repair is completed, to avoid further damage.

电容检验

Capacitance test

失效的电容器一般都会造成像上述系统不稳定的状况,有时候,失效的电容器将在主板上导致电压调节器失效。主要有二个理论可以解释为何发生此状况。

The failure of the capacitor will cause the instability of the system as mentioned above. Sometimes, the failure of the capacitor will lead to the failure of the voltage regulator on the motherboard. There are two main theories to explain why this happens.

第一种较易懂的情况是这类失效的电容会有非常高的漏电流,过高负载的电压调节器会造成过热而失效。 第二种情况是当电容值减少且 ESR 值增加,电压调整器内的降压调节器为了补偿负载而增加交换频率。因为 MOSFET 在交换过渡期间会产生热量,频率增加而导致过热而失效。

The first is easy to understand that this kind of failure capacitor will have a very high leakage current, too high load voltage regulator will cause overheating and failure. In the second case, when the capacitance value decreases and the ESR value increases, the buck regulator in the voltage regulator increases the switching frequency to compensate the load. Because MOSFET will generate heat during the exchange transition, the frequency will increase and lead to overheating and failure.

一颗失效的电容标示著 2200 µF,但是可能只能存储 75 µF 的电量。长时间的使用,50%的衰退是可以被预期的,但是不可能衰退到只剩 5%。降压交换调节器却会被如此低的电量使得稳定性大打折扣,而且调节器的电压波动可能会大于链接至 IC 的建议最大波动值。

A failed capacitor indicates 2200 μ F, but it may only store 75 μ F. Over a long period of time, a 50% decline can be expected, but it is impossible to decline to only 5%. However, the stability of the buck switching regulator will be greatly reduced by such low power, and the voltage fluctuation of the regulator may be greater than the recommended maximum fluctuation value linked to the IC.

最普遍的情况是,当电压调节器坏掉时将会从电源供应直接传导至设备,导致从电源供应器输出的 12V 或 5V 电源直接输入至 CPU、北桥、存储器及其他组件,而这些组件将烧毁。当主板发现使用有瑕疵的电容器就应该被拿出处理,直到修理完毕,避免进一步的损害。

The most common situation is that when the voltage regulator is broken, it will be directly transmitted from the power supply to the device, resulting in 12V or 5V power output from the power supply directly input to the CPU, North Bridge, memory and other components, and these components will be burned. When the motherboard found that the use of defective capacitors should be taken out of processing, until the repair is completed, to avoid further damage.


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