Automatic switching equipment refers to the switching equipment that can establish connection without manual intervention. Automatic switching equipment is widely used, such as automatic telephone exchange. With the development and application of computers and large integrated circuits, the development of automatic exchange has changed greatly.
自动交换设备是指不需人工介入而能建立接续的交换设备。自动交换设备的应用广泛，如自动电话交换机等。随着近代电子技术的飞速发展，人们开始把电子元件应用到交换机中，逐步取代 速度慢、体积大的电磁元件。于是出现了准电子电话交换机（Quasi-Electronic Telephone Switching System）。电脑，大型积体电路的发展及应用，使自动交换机的发展产生 了重大转变。
Automatic switching equipment refers to the switching equipment that can establish connection without manual intervention. Automatic switching equipment is widely used, such as automatic telephone exchange. With the rapid development of modern electronic technology, people began to apply electronic components to switches, gradually replacing the slow and large electromagnetic components. So quasi electronic telephone switching system appeared. With the development and application of computers and large integrated circuits, the development of automatic exchange has changed greatly.
Automatic telephone exchange
世界上第一台自动电话交换机的发明者是阿· 勃· 史瑞乔。 他原是美国一位经营棺材的老 板 他经营有 术 生意兴隆 成为同行中的佼佼者。 然而 他受到同行 们的嫉妒 大家想方设法要击败他。过了不久史瑞乔的棺材生意糟起来了 门庭冷落 购买棺材的电话越来越少。
The inventor of the first automatic telephone exchange in the world was Abbe shricho. He used to be a coffin owner in the United States. He was a successful businessman and became a leader in the industry. However, he was envied by his peers, who tried to beat him. After a while, screecho’s coffin business went bad, and the door was left out in the cold. There were fewer and fewer calls to buy coffins.
通过多方调查史瑞乔才发现 他的棺材生意之所以糟糕并不是他经营不善而是电话局里的一个话务小姐受了贿赂把凡是打来给史氏棺材店的业务电话全接到行贿店的老板那里去了。这使史瑞乔十分恼火。 在恼怒中他整天思索着如何对付那些不称职的话务小姐。他想着想着越想越新奇并想到能否用机器代替那些话务小姐的工作呢。史瑞乔是一个具有一定科学知识和意志坚强的人他下定决心研制一种不用人转接的电话交换机。 史瑞乔经过艰苦的研究 终于研制出世界上第一台自动 电话交换机。
Through many investigations, he found that the reason why his coffin business was bad was not his poor management, but that a telephone operator in the Telephone Bureau was bribed and all the business calls to Shi’s coffin shop were sent to the boss of the bribe shop. This made screecho very angry. In his anger, he thought all day about how to deal with those incompetent telephone girls. He thought that the more he thought about it, the more novel it became. He thought that he could use a machine to replace the work of those telephone girls. Screecho is a man with certain scientific knowledge and strong will. He is determined to develop a telephone exchange without human transfer. After painstaking research, he finally developed the first automatic telephone exchange in the world.
science and technology
随着近代电子技术的飞速发展，人们开始把电子元件应用到交换机中，逐步取代 速度慢、体积大的电磁元件。于是出现了准电子电话交换机（Quasi-Electronic Telephone Switching System）。电脑，大型积体电路的发展及应用，使自动交换机的发展产生 了重大转变。1960 年，美国贝尔系统试用储存程式控制（以下简称程控）交换机（Stored Program Controlled Switching）成功，并于 1965 年 5 月世界第一部程控电话交换机开 始运作。该机采用电脑作为中央控制设备，由电脑来控制接续工作，该交换机属于程 控空间分隔电话交换机（Store-Program Control Space Division Telephone Exchange），它意味着电话自动交换控制技术已从机电式式线控制发展到电子式程式 控制。1970 年，法国设立了世界上第一部程控数位电话交换机（Store-Program Control Digital Telephone Switching System）。随后，美国、加拿大、瑞典、英国等国相继使用程控数位交换机。程控数 位交换机，达到了交换机的全电子化，同时也达到了由类比空间分隔交换向数位分时 交换转的重大转变。到了八十年代，程控数位电话交换技术日渐完善，开始走向交换 技术发展的主导地位。数位交换与数位传输相结合，可以构成整合数位网路（IDN）， 还可以开发成整合服务数位网路（ISDN）。数位交换系统不仅达到语音交换，还要完成 非语音服务的交换，即要求程控数位交换系统具有电话交换（Circuit Switching）， 分封交换（Packet Switching）以及宽频交换的能力。
With the rapid development of modern electronic technology, people began to apply electronic components to switches, gradually replacing the slow and large electromagnetic components. So quasi electronic telephone switching system appeared. With the development and application of computers and large integrated circuits, the development of automatic exchange has changed greatly. In 1960, bell system of the United States successfully tried stored program controlled switching (hereinafter referred to as stored program controlled switching), and in May 1965, the world’s first program-controlled telephone switch began to operate. The computer is used as the central control equipment to control the connection work. The switch belongs to the store program control space division telephone exchange, which means that the automatic telephone exchange control technology has developed from the electromechanical line control to the electronic program control. In 1970, France set up the first store program control digital telephone switching system in the world. Subsequently, the United States, Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and other countries have used program-controlled digital exchanges. The program-controlled digital exchange has achieved the full electronization of the exchange, and at the same time, it has also achieved a significant change from analog space separation exchange to digital time-sharing exchange. In the 1980s, the program-controlled digital telephone switching technology was gradually improved, and began to play a leading role in the development of switching technology. The combination of digital switching and digital transmission can form an integrated digital network (IDN) or an integrated services digital network (ISDN). Digital switching system can not only achieve voice switching, but also complete the exchange of non voice services, that is, the programmable digital switching system is required to have the capabilities of circuit switching, packet switching and broadband switching.
Internet protocol telephone programming
目前,IP 语音电话成为通信技术发展的主流之一。通过网络电话,人们可以在因特网上免费地互相交流。专用自动交换机 PABX(Private Automatic Branch Exchange)广泛应用于企业级电话局域网中。通过 PABX 交换装置,用户之间可以相互通话,也可以与网络终端的用户相互通话,但存在硬件设备价格高和通信费用高的缺点。而采用软路由器来实现专用自动交换机系统转换的作用,具有硬件设备价格低和通信费用低的优势。因此,本文针对专用自动交换机与 VOIP 技术相结合构成的企业级 IP 电话系统,研究实现 VOIP 在 PABX 上的软交换问题。具体研究内容主要包括: 首先,针对本文软交换程序设计涉及到的 VOIP 关键技术进行分析,包括 VOIP 频率计算与分层模型分析、音频数据包及转换模块功能分析、IP 协议和质量保障分析;其次,针对本文软交换程序设计涉及到的 PABX5 的功能进行分析,包括公共交换服务功能、内部线路功能、交换线路继电器功能;然后,在 VOIP 关键技术分析和 PABX5 功能分析的基础上,完成基于 PABX 软交换的 VOIP 技术的程序设计与实现,其中包括 PABX 启动模块、呼叫处理模块、PSTN 通话初始化模块、PSTN 通话连接模块、IP 电话转换模块、通话切断模块以及通话结束处理模块。 本文研究适用于企业级 IP 电话系统,能以较低的成本实现内部的数据网和电话网合二为一,从呼叫控制和呼叫中心到集成的语音邮件和计算机电话,从呼叫者身份识别到多重、多级自动值机员,直到终端话机的添加、移动和改变。
At present, voice over IP has become one of the main trends in the development of communication technology. Through Internet phone, people can communicate with each other free of charge on the Internet. PABX (private automatic branch exchange) is widely used in enterprise telephone LAN. Through PABX switching device, users can talk to each other or with network terminal users, but it has the disadvantages of high hardware price and high communication cost. Using soft router to realize the function of PABX system conversion has the advantages of low hardware price and low communication cost. Therefore, aiming at the enterprise IP telephone system composed of private automatic exchange and VoIP technology, this paper studies the implementation of VoIP soft switch on PABX. The specific research contents mainly include: firstly, analyze the VoIP key technologies involved in the soft switch program design, including VoIP frequency calculation and hierarchical model analysis, audio packet and conversion module function analysis, IP protocol and quality assurance analysis; secondly, analyze the function of pabx5 involved in the soft switch program design, Then, based on the analysis of the key technology of VoIP and the function of pabx5, the program design and implementation of VoIP technology based on PABX soft switch are completed, It includes PABX start module, call processing module, PSTN call initialization module, PSTN call connection module, IP phone conversion module, call cut-off module and call end processing module. This research is suitable for Enterprise IP phone system, which can realize the integration of internal data network and telephone network with low cost, from call control and call center to integrated voice mail and computer phone, from caller identification to multi-level and multi-level automatic operator, to the addition, movement and change of terminal phone.