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【速搜问答】引文网络是什么

问答 admin 9个月前 (04-13) 202次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

引文网络是由文献间引用和被引用的关系构成的集合,这些文献资料包括科技期刊、专利文献、会议论文集、科技报告和学位论文等多种形式,其较好地描述了科学领域的发展、学科间的关系。

Citation network is a collection composed of citation and cited relations among literatures. These literatures include scientific journals, patent documents, conference papers, scientific reports and dissertations, which better describe the development of scientific field and the relationship between disciplines.

引文网络是由文献间引用和被引用的关系构成的集合,这些文献资料包括科技期刊、专利文献、会议论文集、科技报告和学位论文等多种形式,其较好地描述了科学领域的发展、学科间的关系。随着现代信息技术的发展,文献著作数量迅速增加,引文网络已经形成了一个超大规模的复杂网络系统,并吸引了越来越多的关注。由于引文网络包含了多个领域的研究成果,代表了学术研究中重要的知识宝库,其已经成为研究的重要介质。

Citation network is a collection composed of citation and cited relations among literatures. These literatures include scientific journals, patent documents, conference papers, scientific reports and dissertations, which better describe the development of scientific field and the relationship between disciplines. With the development of modern information technology, the number of literature works increases rapidly. Citation network has formed a large-scale complex network system and attracted more and more attention. As the citation network contains research results in many fields, it represents an important repository of knowledge in academic research and has become an important medium of research.

简介

brief introduction

引文网络被认为是社会网络的变型,该网络中的节点是文献,边代表了文献间的引用关系。引文网络的发展区别于一般的社会网络,它由文献的引用关系确定,不可随意添加或删除,其中的引用关系在时间上具有单向性,只能是后期的文献引用前期的文献。引文与被引文之间体现了文献内容的相关性以及知识的传递。实际上,引文网络中隐含了由文献作者组成的研究群体,该群体具有相似的研究内容,并代表着某个领域的研究现状及未来发展趋势,对促进科研的发展及加快学术成果的流动起着重要的作用。

Citation network is considered as a variant of social network. The nodes in the network are documents, and the edges represent the citation relationship between documents. The development of citation network is different from the general social network. It is determined by the citation relationship of literature, and can not be added or deleted at will. The citation relationship is unidirectional in time, which can only be the late literature and the early literature. The relationship between citation and quoted reflects the relevance of literature content and the transfer of knowledge. In fact, the citation network implies a research group composed of literature authors, which has similar research content and represents the research status and future development trend of a certain field. It plays an important role in promoting the development of scientific research and speeding up the flow of academic achievements.

引文网络是一个逐渐生长的科学网络,每一个节点都需要经过严格的筛选与审核,学术评价的对象既包括对学者个人的评价,也包括对群体,例如科技期刊、研究院甚至某国家、某学科的研究水平。当前对引文网络的研究主要是利用数学、统计学的理论以及比较、归纳和概括等逻辑方法,对引文的数量特征以及内部规律进行分析,用以评价文献在学术领域中的重要性。随着数据挖掘技术的发展,越来越多的研究开始利用引文网络来分析学科发展的状况。

Citation network is a growing scientific network, each node needs to be strictly screened and reviewed. The objects of academic evaluation include not only the evaluation of individual scholars, but also the research level of groups, such as scientific journals, research institutes and even a country or a discipline. At present, the research on citation network mainly uses the theory of mathematics and statistics, as well as the logical methods of comparison, induction and generalization to analyze the quantitative characteristics and internal laws of citations, so as to evaluate the importance of literature in the academic field. With the development of data mining technology, more and more researchers begin to use citation network to analyze the development of disciplines.

引文网络研究的发展

The development of citation network research

引文网络的研究最初用于图书情报学领域对科技文献的评价,而随着引文网络在科学研究的发展起着越来越重要的作用,引文网络的研究也得到了众多学者的关注。

The research of citation network was initially used for the evaluation of scientific literature in the field of Library and information science. With the development of citation network in scientific research, the research of citation network has also attracted the attention of many scholars.

最初的引文网络研究是与文本内容无关的,它将科学文本作为研究时的客观资料,考虑到科学语言具有规则性、逻辑性、清晰性等特征,该研究方法主要通过对科学文本进行分析就可以获取该领域的认知,而相关学者的研究及统计结果表明,单纯地分析文本范式难于把握科研领域的发展脉络,必须结合引文中的其它内容进行综合性的分析才能更好地分析特定科研领域的研究成果。

The original citation network research has nothing to do with the content of the text. It takes the scientific text as the objective data. Considering the characteristics of scientific language, such as regularity, logic and clarity, this research method can obtain the cognition of the field mainly by analyzing the scientific text. However, the research and statistical results of relevant scholars show that it is difficult to analyze the text paradigm alone In order to grasp the development of scientific research field, it is necessary to make a comprehensive analysis in combination with other contents in the citation, so as to better analyze the research achievements in specific scientific research field.

而随着数据库技术的不断发展,引文网络的研究也不再局限于使用单一的数据源,这很好地使引文网络的研究能够方便地从多个数据源中获取引文的数据信息进行综合分析,使得整个引文网络的研究更为全面,而在计量工作方面,早期的引文网络研究主要通过传统的统计分析方法来完成,这对于海量数据的处理能力有限,数据挖掘技术的引入在一定程度上缓解了这方面的问题,而社会网络分析技术的使用从另外一个层面上解决了难以解决文本结构分析的难题,此外,可视化技术也在引文网络研究中得到了一定的应用,使得学者们可以快捷地对引文网络的统计结果进行查询及分析。而通过引文网络中同引、耦合和共著等相关概念的提出,引文网络中科研群体的研究逐渐被人们所关注。

With the continuous development of database technology, the research of citation network is no longer limited to the use of a single data source, which makes it easy for the research of citation network to obtain citation data information from multiple data sources for comprehensive analysis, and makes the research of the whole citation network more comprehensive. In the aspect of metrology, the early research of citation network is mainly through the traditional method The introduction of data mining technology alleviates this problem to a certain extent, and the use of social network analysis technology solves the problem of text structure analysis from another level. In addition, visualization technology has also been applied in citation network research, which makes it difficult to solve the problem of text structure analysis Scholars can quickly query and analyze the statistical results of citation network. With the introduction of the concepts of CO citation, coupling and co authorship in citation network, the research of scientific research group in citation network has been paid more and more attention.

引文网络结构

Citation network structure

引文网络是引文分析的研究对象,顾名思义,是指

Citation network is the research object of citation analysis

图 1 引用网络

Figure 1 reference network

如果用结点代表引文,用有向箭头代表引文之间的引用关系,描述在时间上就可以绘出引用网络图,随数字增大,表示年代越靠后,如图 1,图中包括多个应用,其中存在大量的同引和耦合。

If the node is used to represent the citation, and the directional arrow is used to represent the citation relationship between citations, the citation network diagram can be drawn in time. As the number increases, it means that the age is getting later. As shown in Figure 1, the diagram includes multiple applications, in which there are a lot of CO citation and coupling.

引文网络的结构特点

Structure characteristics of Citation Network

引文网络的结构特点有:

The structure characteristics of citation network are as follows

①引文网络是静态的,不可以在任何已有节点上增加新的代表引用的单向箭头,也不可以随意删除已有的代表引用的单向箭头,因为文献一经出版之后,它的参考文献就一成不变了;

① After the existing one-way reference is deleted, it can not be added to the network;

②引文网络中的引用是单向的,即只能是后期的文献引用前期的文献,而前期的文献不能反过来引用后期的文献;

② The citation in the citation network is unidirectional, that is, the late literature can only quote the early literature, while the early literature can not quote the late literature in reverse;

③引文网络中的引文不可以自引,引文不能自己引用自己,在引文分析中,自引主体只能是作者、期刊、学科、机构等;

③ In citation analysis, the subject of self citation can only be the author, journal, discipline, institution, etc;

④引文网络中的引用是有固定时间的,即文献 A 引用文献 B 是有固定时间的,这个固定时间正好是文献 A 的发表时间,且文献 A 的发表时间必然在文献 B 之后,如图 1 中 8 和 8′同时发表,故不存在 8 引用 8′或 8′引用 8;

④ The citation in the citation network has a fixed time, that is, there is a fixed time for document a to quote document B. this fixed time is exactly the publication time of document a, and the publication time of document a must be after document B, as shown in Figure 1, 8 ‘and 8’ are published at the same time, so there is no 8 ‘citation 8’ or 8 ‘citation 8;

⑤引文网络中引文间的引用呈现出主题集中,因为引文间引用的正式性和文献出版的质量控制,引文基本来自同一科学领域或关系紧密的领域。

⑤ Because of the formality of inter citation and the quality control of literature publication, citations come from the same scientific field or closely related fields.

引文网络测度指标

Citation network measurement index

常见的引文网络测度指标可以分为四类:

The common citation network measurement indexes can be divided into four categories

①引文数量特征测度指标:引文数。引文数指文献结尾处的参考文献(不含脚注、间注、夹注等),表示一篇文献引用其它文献的数量。

① The measurement index of citation quantity characteristics: Citation number. The number of citations refers to the references at the end of a document (excluding footnotes, betweens, and betweens), indicating the number of citations from other documents in a document.

②引文分布特征测度指标:平均引用数、自引数与自引率、被引次数与引用数的比值。

② The measurement index of Citation Distribution Characteristics: average citation number, ratio of self citation number to self citation rate, ratio of cited times to citation number.

③期刊(论文)影响力测度指标:被引用数、同引和耦合、期刊影响因子、即年指标。

③ Journal (paper) influence measurement index: the number of citations, CO citation and coupling, journal impact factor, namely year index.

在引文网络中存在大量的同引和耦合。同引(或称同被引)是指两篇或两篇以上文献共同被之后的一篇或多篇文献引用,如图 1 中 5 和 6 同时被之后的 8 和 8′引用;引用它们的论文的多少,即同被引程度,称为同被引强度。耦合则是指两篇文献共同引用了一篇或多篇文献,如图 1 中 2 和 4 共同引用了 1;耦合的文献之间总存在着这样或那样的联系,其联系的程度称为耦合强度。

There are a lot of CO citation and coupling in citation network. Co citation (or co citation) refers to that two or more documents are cited by one or more subsequent documents, such as 5 and 6 in Figure 1 are cited by 8 and 8 ‘at the same time; the number of papers that cite them, that is, the degree of CO citation, is called co citation intensity. Coupling refers to the fact that two documents refer to one or more documents together, for example, 2 and 4 in Figure 1 refer to 1 together; there is always one or another connection between the coupled documents, and the degree of connection is called coupling strength.

期刊影响因子是衡量期刊重要性和影响力的重要指标,其算法为:

Journal impact factor is an important index to measure the importance and influence of journals

其中论文总数、时间和被引次数是计算期刊影响因子的三个基本要素。

The total number of papers, time and cited times are the three basic elements to calculate the journal impact factor.

④文献老化规律测度指标:衰减系数等。

④ Measurement index of literature aging law: attenuation coefficient, etc.

引文网络的研究

Research on Citation Network

研究内容

research contents

引文网络是一个包含了大量信息和知识的复杂网络,其重要性勿庸置疑。随着新的科学研究手段的介入,引文网络的价值被逐渐挖掘出来。研究内容主要分为学术评价指标优化、引文网络中社会群体分析、引文网络知识流挖掘以及引文数据源分析抽取等。

Citation network is a complex network which contains a lot of information and knowledge, and its importance is beyond doubt. With the intervention of new scientific research methods, the value of citation network has been gradually excavated. The research content is mainly divided into academic evaluation index optimization, citation network social group analysis, citation network knowledge flow mining and citation data source analysis and extraction.

研究存在的问题

Problems in the research

(1)计算效率。引文网络的数据量非常大,在分析文献的引用文献时,需要抽取的信息量很多,因此构造包含有效信息的引文网络计算开销很大。此外,不同的数据源记录格式不一样,如何对数据进行有效的预处理,是构造引文网络的前提。在电子文献早期,许多数据源的格式并不规范,出现了信息缺失的情况,也可能影响引文网络的质量。

(1) Computational efficiency. The amount of data in citation network is very large, and a lot of information needs to be extracted when analyzing the citations of literature. Therefore, it costs a lot to construct a citation network with effective information. In addition, different data sources have different record formats. How to preprocess the data effectively is the premise of constructing citation network. In the early days of electronic literature, the format of many data sources was not standardized, resulting in the lack of information, which may also affect the quality of the citation network.

(2)文本分析精确度。引文网络中群体研究以及知识抽取需要依靠强有力的文本分析技术,精确的文本处理有助于引文网络抽取研究主题以及自动分析科研类别。文本分析需要实现的主要任务包括识别出现频率较高的关键词、摒弃语助记号、甄别相同和相近含义的关键词等。有学者提出通过判断涵义、词性对引用进行深层次的分类。需要指出的是,由于人类语言的多样性,给文本分析的研究带来了许多困难。

(2) Accuracy of text analysis. Group research and knowledge extraction in citation network need to rely on powerful text analysis technology. Accurate text processing helps to extract research topics and automatically analyze research categories. The main tasks of text analysis include identifying frequent keywords, discarding auxiliary signs, and identifying keywords with the same or similar meanings. Some scholars put forward the deep classification of quotation by judging the meaning and part of speech. It should be pointed out that the diversity of human language brings many difficulties to the study of text analysis.

(3)时效性参数设置。引文网络是一个具有时效性的网络,越早的数据源衰老速度越快。根据年代对引文网络节点的入度赋予相应权值的方法,使时间间隔越小的引用权值越大。但由于不同的引文网络需要选取不同的权值,因此该方法在操作性上还存在一些问题。

(3) Timeliness parameter setting. Citation network is a network with timeliness. The earlier the data source, the faster the aging speed. According to the age of the citation network node into the degree of the corresponding weight method, so that the smaller the time interval, the greater the citation weight. However, because different citation networks need to choose different weights, there are still some problems in the operability of this method.

(4)引用类型的区分。引文成为标准的科学规范之一是否会被所有的科学家接受并在实践中应用,将影响到引文分析可视化结果的正确性,引文动机的不同给研究带来了挑战。对不符合规范的引用情况,例如对一些“装饰性”的引文进行过滤,并且鉴别出各种不同的引用类型,例如概念引用、方法引用、思想原理的引用等,将会提升引文分析的精确度。

(4) Distinction of reference types. Whether citation becomes one of the standard scientific norms will be accepted by all scientists and applied in practice will affect the correctness of the visualization results of citation analysis, and the different motivation of citation brings challenges to the research. The accuracy of citation analysis will be improved by filtering some “decorative” citations and identifying different types of citations, such as concept citations, method citations and principle citations.


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