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【速搜问答】分组装拆器是什么

问答 admin 4周前 (04-10) 26次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

分组装/拆器(PAD)是一种用于X.25公共分组交换网络的多路复用器,它用于将非分组数据流,例如异步传输中的开始结束位,转换成可以在x.25分组交换网络上传输的分组,在另一端的PAD拆装这个分组。

Pad is a kind of multiplexer used in X.25 public packet switching network. It is used to convert non packet data streams, such as start and end bits in asynchronous transmission, into packets that can be transmitted on X.25 packet switching network. The pad at the other end disassembles the packet.

分组装/拆器(PAD)是一种用于 X.25 公共分组交换网络的多路复用器,它用于将非分组数据流,例如异步传输中的开始结束位,转换成可以在 x.25 分组交换网络上传输的分组,在另一端的 PAD 拆装这个分组;

Pad is a kind of multiplexer used in X.25 public packet switching network. It is used to convert non packet data streams, such as start and end bits in asynchronous transmission, into packets that can be transmitted on X.25 packet switching network. The pad at the other end disassembles the packet;

PAD 最初是为在一个地点的多个终端访问 X.25 网络而设计的,PAD 认可 CCITT X.29 规范,CCITT X.29 规范定义了对异步 ASCII 数据的打包和拆包。

Pad was originally designed for multiple terminals in one location to access X.25 network. Pad recognizes CCITT x.29 specification, which defines the packaging and unpacking of asynchronous ASCII data.

分组格式

Grouping format

PAD 的分组格式类似于 X.25 分组格式,其标题部分与 X.25 数据分组格式一样,也是由 3 个字节组成,各个字段的意义也相同。

The grouping format of pad is similar to that of X.25. The title of pad is the same as that of X.25, which is composed of three bytes, and the meaning of each field is the same.

标题之后的第一个字节为控制字段,此后为成对的参数号与参数值。参数 1、参数值,参数 2、参数值,...,参数 n、参数值.

The first byte after the title is the control field, followed by a pair of parameter numbers and parameter values. Parameter 1, parameter value, parameter 2, parameter value,…, parameter n, parameter value

相关建议

Relevant suggestions

多数的非分组式终端是字符终端,它们能发送和接收起止式字符,采用异步通信方式,因而也常被称为起止式终端或异步终端。对于使这类终端接入分组交换网的 PAD,国际电报电话咨询委员会(CCITT)特别制定了 x.3,x.28 和 x.29 三个建议来规定其工作。这三个建议的主要功能为:①提供对 x.25 规程支持,用于与非分组式终端连接;②向非分组式终端提供通过分组交换网建立呼叫、进行数据传输和清除呼叫的能力;③向非分组式终端提供观察和修改接口参数的能力,以适应不同终端的要求。

Most of the non group terminals are character terminals, which can send and receive start stop characters and adopt asynchronous communication mode, so they are also called start stop terminals or asynchronous terminals. CCITT has specially formulated three recommendations x.3, x.28 and x.29 to regulate the work of pad which enables such terminals to access the packet switching network. The main functions of the three suggestions are as follows: ① providing X.25 protocol support for connecting with non packet terminals; ② providing non packet terminals with the ability to establish calls, carry out data transmission and clear calls through packet switching network; ③ providing non packet terminals with the ability to observe and modify interface parameters to meet the requirements of different terminals.

下面简单介绍这三个建议。

Here are three suggestions.

X.3 建议 此建议定义 r 一组参数(共 22 个),这组参数规定了使非分组式终端接入分组交换网的 PAD 所执行的功能,主要包括异步接口控制、数据转送控制、发送输出控制、发送输入控制、编辑功能等。这些参数的值可以由网络操作人员设置,也可由用户使用 X.28 的命令进行修改,也可由远端的 PAD 或远端的分组式终端使用 X.29 建议的报文进行修改。

10. 3. It is suggested that a set of parameters (22 in total) be defined in this proposal. This set of parameters specifies the functions to be performed by the pad that enables the non packet terminal to access the packet switching network, mainly including asynchronous interface control, data forwarding control, transmit output control, transmit input control, editing function, etc. The values of these parameters can be set by the network operator, modified by the user using the command of x.28, or modified by the remote pad or the packet terminal using the message recommended by x.29.

X.28 建议 此建议规定了起止式终端与 PAD 的接口规程。它主要包括以下 4 方面内容:

10. 28 recommendation this Recommendation specifies the interface procedure between start stop terminal and pad. It mainly includes the following four aspects:

(1)起止式终端与 PAD 之间的物理通路建立过程。规定经由公用交换电话网或租用线路时需用调制解调器的类型及其电气特性,或者经由公用数据网或具有 x 系列接口的租用线路的接口物理特性,还规定了,通路的建立与拆除过程。

(1) The process of establishing physical path between start stop terminal and pad. It specifies the types and electrical characteristics of modems to be used when using public switched telephone network or leased line, or the physical characteristics of interfaces through public data network or leased line with X series interface, and also specifies the establishment and removal process of access.

(2)起止式终端与 PAD 进行通信的初始化工作。规定了用于控制信息交换的字符格式,X.3 建议的 22 个参数选择(即 PAD 轮廓值),通过业务请求信号使 PAD 知道终端所使用的数据速率、编码及奇偶检验等。

(2) Initialization of communication between start stop terminal and pad. The character format used to control information exchange is specified, 22 parameters (PAD contour value) recommended by x.3 are selected, and the pad knows the data rate, coding and parity check used by the terminal through the service request signal.

(3)起止式终端与 PAD 之间控制信息的交换过程。包括 PAD 命令信号、服务信号、呼叫建立和清除过程。

(3) The process of control information exchange between start stop terminal and pad. It includes pad command signal, service signal, call establishment and clearing process.

(4)起止式终端与 PAD 之问用户数据的交换过程。

(4) The process of data exchange between start stop terminal and pad.

X.29 建议此建议定义了在分组交换网中一个 PAD 与远端 PAD 或 X.25 DTE 之问交换控制信息和用户数据的过程。其主要功能是在起止式终端与远端 PAD 或 X.25DTE 通信之前,使本地 PAD 与远端 PAD 或 DTE 之间交换信息,从而使远端 DTE 了解本地 DTE 的各个方面信息,并进行协调控制,使双方顺利完成通信。

10. Recommendation 29 this Recommendation defines the process of exchanging control information and user data between a pad and a remote pad or X.25 DTE in a packet switched network. Its main function is to exchange information between the local pad and the remote pad or DTE before the start stop terminal communicates with the remote pad or X.25 DTE, so that the remote DTE can understand all aspects of the information of the local DTE and carry out coordinated control, so that the two sides can successfully complete the communication.

功能

function

PAD 的主要功能有:

The main functions of pad are as follows

①提供 X.25 协议支持,用于与分组交换网的连接和通信。

① Provide X.25 protocol support for connection and communication with packet switching network.

②提供非 X.25 协议支持,用于与非 X.25(非分组)终端的连接。

② Provide non-x.25 protocol support for connection with non-x.25 (non packet) terminals.

③向非分组式终端提供通过分组交换网建立呼叫,进行数据传输和拆除呼叫的能力。

③ It provides non packet terminal with the ability to set up call, carry out data transmission and remove call through packet switching network.

④向非分组式终端提供观察和修改接口参数的能力,以适应不同终端的要求。

④ It provides the ability to observe and modify interface parameters for non packet terminals to meet the requirements of different terminals.


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