Decentralized computing is the allocation of hardware and software resources to each individual workstation or office. In contrast, centralized computing exists when most functions are performed, or is obtained from remote centralized locations. Distributed computing is a trend in modern business environment. This is contrary to the centralized computing popular in the early days of computer.
Decentralized computing, also known as decentralized computing, allocates hardware and software resources to each individual workstation or office. In contrast, centralized computing exists when most functions are performed, or is obtained from remote centralized locations. Distributed computing is a trend in modern business environment. This is contrary to the centralized computing popular in the early days of computer.
The distributed computer system has many advantages over the traditional centralized network. The development of desktop computers is so rapid that their potential performance far exceeds the requirements of most commercial applications. This causes most desktop computers to remain idle (relative to their full potential). Decentralized systems can use the potential of these systems to maximize efficiency. However, it is questionable whether these networks improve the overall effectiveness.
The origin of decentralized computing
去中心化计算的起源源自 David Chaum 的工作。
The origin of decentralized computing comes from the work of David Chaum.
1979 年期间，他构想了称为混合网络的分散计算机系统的第一个概念。它启用了一个匿名电子邮件通信网络，该网络将消息的认证分散到一个协议中，该协议将成为洋葱路由的先驱，这是臭名昭著的 TOR 浏览器的协议。通过这个匿名通信网络的最初发展，David Chaum 应用了他的混合网络理念来设计世界上第一个分散式支付系统并于 1980 年获得专利。在 1982 年的后期，他为博士论文写了关于分散计算服务的需求，并将在 1990 年推出世界上第一个分散式支付系统 eCash。
During 1979, he conceived the first concept of a distributed computer system called a hybrid network. It enables an anonymous e-mail communication network, which disperses authentication of messages into a protocol, which will become the pioneer of onion routing, which is the protocol of the infamous tor browser. Through the initial development of this anonymous communication network, David Chaum applied his hybrid network concept to design the world’s first distributed payment system, which was patented in 1980. In late 1982, he wrote for his doctoral dissertation on the demand for distributed computing services, and will launch ecash, the world’s first distributed payment system, in 1990.
Unlike centralized computer systems, all computers must be updated separately with new software. The distributed system still supports file sharing, and all computers can share peripherals such as printers, scanners and modems, thus allowing all computers in the network to connect to the Internet.
A collection of decentralized computer systems is an integral part of a larger computer network, consisting of local stations of equal importance and capability. These systems can operate independently.
Point to point
基于“网格模型”，对等系统或 P2P 系统是在若干本地计算机上运行的应用程序的集合，这些计算机彼此远程连接以完成功能或任务。卫星系统从属的主要操作系统没有。这种软件开发（和分配）的方法为开发人员提供了巨大的节省，因为他们不必创建中央控制点。一个示例应用程序是 LAN 消息传递，允许用户在没有中央服务器的情况下进行通信
Based on the “grid model”, peer-to-peer system or P2P system is a collection of applications running on several local computers, which are remotely connected to each other to complete functions or tasks. The satellite system is subordinate to the main operating system. This approach to software development (and distribution) offers developers huge savings because they don’t have to create a central control point. An example application is LAN messaging, which allows users to communicate without a central server
File sharing application
去中心化计算最有趣的辩论之一涉及 Napster，一种音乐文件共享应用程序，它允许用户访问庞大的文件数据库。唱片公司对 Napster 提起法律诉讼，指责该唱片销量下滑。Napster 通过散发未经许可的软件被发现违反版权法，并被关闭。
One of the most interesting debates about decentralized computing involves Napster, a music file sharing application that allows users to access a large file database. The record company filed a lawsuit against Napster, accusing it of declining sales. Napster was found violating copyright law by distributing unlicensed software and was shut down.
After Napster’s downfall, a file sharing system is needed, which is less vulnerable to litigation. Gnutella is a distributed system and has been developed. The system allows users to query and share files without a central directory, so it can avoid legal problems for individual users.