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【速搜问答】硬件兼容性是什么

问答 admin 1个月前 (04-10) 38次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

硬件兼容性是指多个独立的硬件设备能否在操作系统的统一调度下协调工作发挥性能互不排斥。 如果它们不能做到这些甚至发生 IRQ 冲突, 工艺代差,规格规范有差别, 那么就产生了硬件兼容性问题。

Hardware compatibility refers to whether multiple independent hardware devices can work coordinately under the unified scheduling of the operating system and play a role of performance, which is not mutually exclusive. If they can’t do this, or even have IRQ conflict, process generation difference, specification difference, then there will be hardware compatibility problems.

硬件兼容性是指多个独立的硬件设备能否在操作系统的统一调度下协调工作发挥性能互不排斥。 如果它们不能做到这些甚至发生 IRQ 冲突, 工艺代差,规格规范有差别, 那么就产生了硬件兼容性问题。

Hardware compatibility refers to whether multiple independent hardware devices can work coordinately under the unified scheduling of the operating system and play a role of performance, which is not mutually exclusive. If they can’t do this, or even have IRQ conflict, process generation difference, specification difference, then there will be hardware compatibility problems.

简介

brief introduction

计算机故障当中有很大一部分都是由硬件兼容性引起的。 譬如电脑的死机、蓝屏、黑屏,BIOS 芯片控制的主板喇叭发出的各种硬件故障声响以及主板信号灯显示的各种数值等都有可能是硬件兼容性的故障。 面对这种问题很多用户手足无措, 甚至一些计算机硬件维护公司都走过弯路, 所以这类问题的解决之道就显得很重要, 下文就围绕这一点进行分析并对可行方法进行介绍说明。

A large part of computer failures are caused by hardware compatibility. For example, the computer crash, blue screen, black screen, BIOS chip control of the motherboard speaker issued a variety of hardware failure sounds and motherboard signal lights display a variety of values may be hardware compatibility failures. In the face of this problem, many users are at a loss, and even some computer hardware maintenance companies have gone through detours, so the solution to this kind of problem is very important. The following paper analyzes this point and introduces the feasible methods.

硬件兼容性是指多个独立的硬件设备能否在操作系统的统一调度下协调工作发挥性能互不排斥。 如果它们不能做到这些甚至发生 IRQ 冲突, 工艺代差,规格规范有差别, 那么就产生了硬件兼容性问题。 譬如 DDR2 内存和 DDR3 内存插槽不能通用, 部分 AM2 主板要通过 BIOS 更新才能兼容 AM2+处理器,主板对内存容量频率的支持等等。 通过了解兼容性的问题使我们自己对于硬件故障的排除甚至提高经济效益都大有好处。

Hardware compatibility refers to whether multiple independent hardware devices can work coordinately under the unified scheduling of the operating system and play a role of performance, which is not mutually exclusive. If they can’t do this, or even have IRQ conflict, process generation difference, specification difference, then there will be hardware compatibility problems. For example, DDR2 Memory and DDR3 memory slots are not universal, some AM2 motherboards need to be updated by BIOS to be compatible with AM2 + processors, motherboards support memory capacity and frequency, and so on. By understanding the problem of compatibility, we can eliminate the hardware failure and even improve the economic efficiency.

常见问题

common problem

内存与主板不兼容

The memory is not compatible with the motherboard

在计算机的硬件冲突当中,内存与主板不兼容问题尤为普遍,比如,在开机后机器会发出“滴滴”的响声给予警告,或者机器无法点亮。解决这一问题的方法可以通过拔出内存条进行重插的方式给予解决。但并不能完全根治这一问题。这种问题大多发生于小厂家生产的内存条当中,因为小厂家在制造内存条后,并没有通过严谨进行审查,内存条上的金手指如果厚度超标、工艺较差,就会出现接触不良的现象。应当先清洁内存条中的金手指,或者对内存条进行固定,以便确保内存条和主板能够完全吻合,避免发生不兼容现象。并且,即便是同一个内存,在相同型号、相同品牌的不同主板中,也会产生有的主板可以正常运转,而有的主板则会提出警报的现象,这一问题长期以来未获得良好的解决,主要通过更改方式对问题进行处理。

In the conflict of computer hardware, the incompatibility between memory and motherboard is particularly common. For example, after the machine is turned on, the machine will give a “didi” sound to give a warning, or the machine can’t light up. The solution to this problem can be achieved by pulling out the memory module and re inserting it. But it can’t cure this problem completely. This kind of problem mostly occurs in the memory modules produced by small manufacturers, because small manufacturers did not pass the rigorous review after manufacturing the memory modules. If the thickness of the gold finger on the memory module exceeds the standard and the process is poor, there will be poor contact. You should first clean the golden finger in the memory module, or fix the memory module, so as to ensure that the memory module and the motherboard can completely match, and avoid incompatibility. Moreover, even if the same memory, in the same model, the same brand of different motherboards, there will be some motherboards can operate normally, and some motherboards will alarm. This problem has not been well solved for a long time, mainly through the change of the way to deal with the problem.

显卡与主板不兼容

The graphics card is not compatible with the motherboard

在计算机当中,显卡与主板冲突现象尤为普遍,令计算机无法正常运转,此类问题大多因为显卡在制作时为了注重工艺,显卡的元器件在焊接时存在虚焊的情况,令计算机显示器无法亮起,无法正常使用,甚至还会出现花屏等状况。对这一问题,不仅要通过清洁接触点的形式提升显卡与主板之间的接触。还要对显卡元器件采取系统化的检查,在虚焊的地方进行补焊,以免发生花屏的现象。

In the computer, the conflict between the graphics card and the motherboard is particularly common, which makes the computer unable to operate normally. This kind of problem is mostly due to the fact that in order to pay attention to the process when the graphics card is made, the components of the graphics card have false welding when welding, which makes the computer display unable to light up, cannot be used normally, and even has the situation of splash screen. To solve this problem, we should not only improve the contact between the graphics card and the motherboard by cleaning the contact points. But also to take a systematic inspection of the components of the graphics card, repair welding in the place of false welding, in order to avoid the phenomenon of screen.

声卡与主板不兼容

The sound card is not compatible with the motherboard

制作主板时,大部分主板均集成了声卡,可是在音质要求较高的行业中,计算机应用依旧要通过独立声卡进行提升。声卡未选择得当,或者系统驱动的安装出现问题,都会令声卡与主板出现不兼容的现象。如果在集成声卡的主板中设置独立声卡则会较易导致硬件出现冲突,从而出现无声音状况,或其他设备与声卡存在冲突。这样的问题能够在资源管理器的设施属性内修改冲突的地址,以便将声卡与主板不兼容的问题进行解决。

When making motherboards, most motherboards are integrated with sound cards, but in the industry with higher requirements for sound quality, computer applications still need to be improved through independent sound cards. If the sound card is not selected properly, or the installation of the system driver is wrong, the sound card and the motherboard will be incompatible. If an independent sound card is set in the motherboard of the integrated sound card, it will easily lead to hardware conflict, resulting in no sound condition, or conflict between other devices and the sound card. In order to solve the problem that the sound card is not compatible with the motherboard, the conflicting address can be modified in the facility attribute of the resource manager.

系统驱动问题形成的硬件冲突

Hardware conflict caused by system driver problem

操作系统引起的硬件冲突在计算机硬件冲突及兼容性方面时常发生。安装系统时,把相同系统资源分配于不同设备当中,则会出现硬件冲突的现象,令硬件设施无法正常运转。此时,应当先确认设备驱动程序仅进行过一次安装,在设备管理器选项卡内找出重复设施,删除不断出现两次的设备,并在此安装设施驱动的程序。在设备管理器的选项中仅出现的一次设备进行确认以后,检查资源设置项,查看设备系统下载资源设置是否正确。

Hardware conflicts caused by operating system often occur in computer hardware conflicts and compatibility. When the system is installed, if the same system resources are allocated to different devices, the phenomenon of hardware conflict will appear, which makes the hardware facilities unable to operate normally. At this time, you should first confirm that the device driver has only been installed once, find out the duplicate facilities in the device manager option card, delete the devices that appear twice, and install the facility driver here. After confirming the device that appears only once in the device manager options, check the resource settings to see if the device system download resource settings are correct.

解决办法

terms of settlement

BIOS 芯片

BIOS chip

BIOS 是一个集成在主板上的 ROM 芯片负责在开机时对电脑系统中各硬件进行初始化和测试保证系统能够正常运行。 它是一个基本输入输出系统,是软件层与硬件层交互的一个重要桥梁。 BIOS 提供了驱动程序接口,设定系统相关配置的状态,硬件设备的差异导致参数配置不尽相同,合理的设置 BIOS 不但能排除一些故障更能充分发挥电脑硬件的性能甚至可以延长使用寿命。

BIOS is a ROM chip integrated on the motherboard, which is responsible for initializing and testing the hardware in the computer system when it is turned on to ensure the normal operation of the system. It is a basic I / O system and an important bridge between software layer and hardware layer. BIOS provides a driver interface to set the state of system configuration. Different hardware devices lead to different parameter configurations. Reasonable BIOS settings can not only remove some faults, but also give full play to the performance of computer hardware, and even extend the service life.

升级主板

Upgrade motherboard

BIOS 的需求分析由于可以通过 BIOS 设置程序对 CMOS 参数进行设置,当硬件发生了大的改动或者升级,原来的硬件环境已经不可能再支持设备间的兼容, 比如我们的处理器发生了变动,由原来的 AM2 处理器变为 AM2+处理器或者将内存条的频率从 667MHZ 变成 800MHZ 而主板本身通过其它方法都无法实现兼容, 当我们需要超频但是原有主板功能欠缺时, 那么这个时候就可以尝试通过更新 BIOS 来达到目的。

Requirement analysis of BIOS: because CMOS parameters can be set through BIOS Setup program, when the hardware is greatly changed or upgraded, the original hardware environment can no longer support the compatibility between devices. For example, our processor is changed from the original AM2 processor to AM2 + processor, or the frequency of memory module is changed from 667mhz to 800MHz The motherboard itself can not be compatible by other methods. When we need to overclock but the original motherboard is lack of function, we can try to update the BIOS to achieve the purpose at this time.

更新 BIOS 的方法

How to update BIOS

1)寻找新版本的 BIOS 文件每个主板厂家都会定期推出更新的 BIOS 版本以解决该主板在实际运用中遇到的问题,这些新的 BIOS 都以文件的形式存放在站点上提供下载, 那么用户可根据自己的主板型号找到对应的厂家站点下载最新 BIOS 文件。

1) Looking for new versions of BIOS files, each motherboard manufacturer will regularly launch updated BIOS versions to solve the problems encountered in the actual use of the motherboard. These new BIOS files are stored in the form of files on the site for download, so users can find the corresponding manufacturer’s site to download the latest BIOS files according to their motherboard model.

2)选择合适的刷新工具 BIOS 刷新工具一般有两种 : 一种是 BIOS 生产厂家提供的刷新工具,比如 Awardflash,一种是主板厂家自己的刷新工具。 这里就要根据自己的具体情况来分析。一般由 BIOS 生产厂家提供的刷新程序只能用来刷新 自 己 生 产 的 BIOS。 常 见 的 有 AWDBIOS,AMIBIOS 等。 下面以 Awdbios 为例进行说明。

2) There are two kinds of BIOS refresh tools: one is the refresh tool provided by BIOS manufacturer, such as awardflash, and the other is the refresh tool of motherboard manufacturer. Here we should analyze it according to our own specific situation. Generally, the refresh program provided by BIOS manufacturers can only be used to refresh their own BIOS. The common ones are awdbios, amibis and so on. The following is an example of awdbios.

3)升级主板 BIOS 前的准备工作

3) Preparation before upgrading the BIOS of motherboard

A.首先进入 BIOS 设置界面,在 Advanced Bios Set-up 功能项中 ,将 BIOSupdate 设置成 enabled, 这样才能将新的文件写入进 BIOS。

A. First, enter the BIOS Setup interface. In the advanced BIOS set up function item, set biosupdate to enabled so that new files can be written into the BIOS.

B. 在 CMOS CHIPSET FEATURE SETUP 功 能 项中, 将 system bios cacheable 和 Video Bios Cacheable 以及 Virus Warning(病毒警告)等功能全部禁用,防止刷新时受限。 最后保存 CMOS 设置并退出。

B. In the CMOS chipset feature setup function item, the system BIOS cacheable, video BIOS cacheable and virus warning functions are all disabled to prevent the refresh from being limited. Finally, save the CMOS settings and exit.

C.的由于现在的电脑都没有软驱,所以制作软盘启动的方法并不适用,这时将新的 BIOS 文件(后缀名一般为.bin),Awdflash.exe 文件放在硬盘某一个分区的根目录下的同一个文件夹当中。 这样便于在 DOS 系统下很快找到要用的文件。 准别工作就绪。

C. Because there is no floppy disk drive in current computers, the method of making a floppy disk to start is not applicable, Awdflash.exe The files are placed in the same folder under the root directory of a partition on the hard disk. In this way, it is easy to find the file to be used quickly in DOS system. The work is ready.

4)更新 BIOS 文件直接找到有纯净 DOS 的系统光盘, 或者直接在系统当中安装一个带纯 DOS 的软件,重启电脑进入 DOS 系统。 如果将最新的 BIOS 文件 A.bin 和 Awdflash.exe 的文件夹放在了 D 分区的根目录下的 123 文件夹中,进入 DOS 系统按一下步骤进行刷新:输入 cd d:回车 进入磁盘 D 分区; D:cd 123 回车进入 D 分区 123 文件夹;D:123 Awdflash A.bin 回车后,显示:原有 BIOS 文件路径存放的路径,还是在此文件夹中保存,文件名直接自定义,如 B.bin 保存完毕后提示要使用的新 BIOS 文件 A.bin 直接回车开始更新,更新过程中不能够断电。 同样可以使用参数命令来实现:D:123 Awdflash A.bin/py/cd/cp/cc/r (py: 刷新闪存,cd: 清楚 DMI 日期 ,cp: 清除 PNP 数据 ,cc: 刷新后清除 CMOS 数据,r:重启系统)。

4) Update the BIOS file, directly find the system CD with pure DOS, or directly install a software with pure DOS in the system, restart the computer and enter the DOS system. If the latest BIOS file a.bin and Awdflash.exe After entering DOS system, click the following steps to refresh: enter CD, D: enter to disk partition D; D: (CD 123) enter to disk partition 123; D: (AWDFLASH a.bin) enter to display the original BIOS The path of the file path is saved in this folder, and the file name can be defined directly. For example, after b.bin is saved, you will be prompted to use the new BIOS file a.bin to start the update. You cannot power off during the update process. It can also be implemented by using parameter command: D: (123 AWDFLASH a.bin/py/cd/cp/cc/r (py: refresh flash, CD: clear DMI date, CP: clear PNP data, CC: clear CMOS data after refresh, R: restart the system).

到此刷新工作完成, 实现了主板 BIOS 的更新,这时由硬件更新升级带来的工艺规范的兼容性问题就可以得到解决。

At this point, the refresh work is completed, and the BIOS of the motherboard is updated. At this time, the compatibility problem of the process specification caused by the hardware update and upgrade can be solved.


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