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【速搜问答】TrueNAS CORE硬件指南

问答 admin 8个月前 (03-25) 426次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

TrueNAS 社区在涉及到为自己喜欢的存储操作系统选择理想硬件的艺术和科学方面,具有丰富的建议生态系统。从官方的《硬件要求》到社区维护的《硬件建议指南》,再到无数的博客文章,用户只有一个简单的问题:“我应该买什么硬件?”来自 iXsystems 的 TrueNAS Mini 和 FreeNAS Certified 专用 TrueNAS 系统生产线是该问题的官方答案,它们也可为想要构建自己的系统或重新利用现有系统的用户提供模板。

The truenas community has a rich ecosystem of advice on the art and science of choosing the ideal hardware for your favorite storage operating system. From the official “hardware requirements” to the “hardware advice guide” maintained by the community, to numerous blog posts, users only have a simple question: “what hardware should I buy?” Truenas mini and freenas certified dedicated truenas system production lines from ixsystems are the official answer to this question. They can also provide templates for users who want to build their own systems or reuse existing systems.

因此,本指南将使用 TrueNAS Mini 和 FreeNAS Certified systems 作为构建任何大小 TrueNAS 兼容系统的标准参考。

Therefore, this guide will use truenas mini and freenas certified systems as standard references for building truenas compatible systems of any size.

存储设备注意事项

Storage device considerations

任何存储系统的核心都是确保其文件系统和物理存储设备的共生配对。 TrueNAS 中的 ZFS 文件系统不惜任何代价提供了任何文件系统中最好的可用数据保护,并且非常有效地利用了机械磁盘和全固态存储,或混合硬盘。ZFS 为存储设备的最终故障做好了充分的准备,并且可以进行自由配置,以实现冗余和性能的完美平衡,从而满足任何存储目标。正确配置的 TrueNAS 系统可以承受多个存储设备故障,甚至是启动媒介出现了故障,也可以使用配置文件的副本快速重新创建它。选择存储介质是设计存储系统以实现当前目标并为将来的容量扩展做准备的第一步。

The core of any storage system is to ensure the symbiotic pairing of its file system and physical storage devices. ZFS file system in truenas provides the best available data protection in any file system at any cost, and makes very effective use of mechanical disk and all solid state storage, or hybrid hard disk. ZFS is fully prepared for the final failure of storage devices, and can be freely configured to achieve a perfect balance between redundancy and performance, so as to meet any storage goal. A properly configured truenas system can withstand multiple storage device failures, even if the boot media fails. It can also be quickly recreated by using a copy of the configuration file. Choosing a storage medium is the first step in designing a storage system to achieve current goals and prepare for future capacity expansion.

机械硬盘

Mechanical hard disk

直到存储介质出现下一个不可预见的科学突破之前,机械硬盘将一直存在,这得益于它实现了容量和成本之间的平衡。两位数 TB 的消费级和企业级驱动器的到来为 TrueNAS 用户提供了前所未有的更多选择。 TrueNAS Mini 和 FreeNAS Certified systems 分别附带西数 NAS 和 NL-SAS 是具有良好理由的,并且了解替代方案将解释这一决定。

Until the next unexpected scientific breakthrough in storage media, mechanical hard disk will always exist, thanks to the balance between capacity and cost. The arrival of two digit terabytes of consumer and enterprise class drives offers truenas users more choices than ever before. Truenas mini and freenas Certified Systems with Western Digital NAS and nl-sas, respectively, have good reasons, and understanding the alternatives will explain this decision.

SATA NAS 磁盘

SATA NAS disk

串口(SATA)仍然是事实上的标准磁盘接口,可以在许多台式机/笔记本电脑、服务器和某些非企业级存储阵列中找到。SATA 磁盘首先问世,提供了两位数的千兆字节容量,并且自生产以来就满足了无数的容量、可靠性和性能目标。尽管在整体可靠性方面,消费类台式机 SATA 磁盘已不像以前那样存在问题,但仍不是为连续操作或在 RAID 组中使用而设计的。 因此,引入了企业级 SATA 磁盘来解决存储系统所需的“始终在线”需求、振动容限和驱动器错误处理。但是,台式机和企业级 SATA 驱动器之间的价格差异很大(并且今后仍将很大),以至于迫使用户不得不将他的消费类驱动器用于 7*24 小时服务以追求节省成本。

Serial port (SATA) is still the de facto standard disk interface, which can be found in many desktop / notebook computers, servers and some non enterprise storage arrays. SATA disk is the first to come out, providing two digit Gigabyte capacity, and has met numerous capacity, reliability and performance goals since its production. Although consumer desktop SATA disks are no longer as problematic as before in terms of overall reliability, they are not designed for continuous operation or use in raid groups. Therefore, the enterprise class SATA disk is introduced to solve the “always on” requirement, vibration tolerance and drive error handling required by the storage system. However, the price difference between desktop and enterprise class SATA drives is so great (and will be so great in the future) that users have to use their consumer drives for 7 * 24-hour service in order to save costs.

驱动器供应商通过生产“ NAS”驱动器来应对市场中的这一缺口(并且可能厌倦了保修因错误应用而产生故障的桌面驱动器),最著名的是带有 CMR/PMR 技术的 Western Digital(WD)Red™驱动器(现在称为 WD Red Plus)。WD Red™Plus NAS 驱动器(非 SMR)设计可用于多达八个硬盘驱动器的系统,对于 WD Red™Pro 驱动器而言最多可达 16 个驱动器,WD UltraStar™驱动器则可用于 16 个驱动器以上的系统。

Drive vendors address this gap in the market by producing “NAS” drives (and may be tired of warranty desktop drives that fail due to incorrect applications), most notably Western Digital (WD) red with CMR / PMR technology ™ Drive (now called WD red plus). WD Red ™ Plus NAS drives (non SMR) are designed for systems with up to eight hard drives. For WD red ™ Up to 16 drives for pro drive, WD ultrastar ™ Drives can be used in systems with more than 16 drives.

在 iXsystems 社区论坛中,WD 驱动器因其卓越的质量和可靠性而成为构建 TrueNAS 的首选硬盘驱动器。除非另有要求,否则所有 TrueNAS Mini 均随附 WD Red™Plus 驱动器。

In the ixsystems community forum, WD drive has become the first choice for truenas due to its excellent quality and reliability. All truenas Mini come with WD red unless otherwise required ™ Plus drive.

近线 SAS 磁盘

Near line SAS disk

“近线” SAS(NL-SAS)磁盘实际上是带有行业标准的 SAS 接口的 7200 RPM 企业级 SATA 磁盘,这种接口为大多数企业级存储系统所拥有。SAS 代表“串行连接的 SCSI”,即串行形式的传统 SCSI 磁盘接口。SAS 系统是为数据中心存储应用程序设计的,因此具有准确、详细的错误处理,可预测的故障行为,可靠的热插拔功能,并具有多路径支持的附加功能。多路径访问意味着每个驱动器都有两个接口,并且可以通过两条电缆连接到两个存储控制器或一个控制器。在 TrueNAS 高可用性架构的情况下,此冗余可防止电缆故障,控制器卡故障或整个系统故障,其中每个“控制器”实际上是访问同一组 NL-SAS 驱动器的独立服务器。NL-SAS 驱动器也足够强大,可以处理磁盘数量超过 16 个的系统。因此,凭借 NL-SAS 驱动器提供的容量、可靠性、性能和灵活性的全方位完美平衡,面向容量的 TrueNAS 和某些 FreeNAS Certified systems 随附 Western Digital UltraStar NL-SAS 磁盘。

“Near line” SAS (nl-sas) disks are actually 7200 RPM enterprise class SATA disks with industry standard SAS interfaces, which are owned by most enterprise class storage systems. SAS stands for “Serial Attached SCSI”, that is, serial form of traditional SCSI disk interface. SAS system is designed for data center storage applications, so it has accurate and detailed error handling, predictable fault behavior, reliable hot swap function, and additional functions of multi-path support. Multipath access means that each drive has two interfaces and can be connected to two storage controllers or one controller through two cables. In the case of truenas high availability architecture, this redundancy can prevent cable failure, controller card failure or whole system failure, where each “controller” is actually an independent server accessing the same set of nl-sas drives. Nl-sas drives are also powerful enough to handle systems with more than 16 disks. Therefore, with the perfect balance of capacity, reliability, performance and flexibility provided by nl-sas drives, capacity oriented truenas and some freenas certified systems come with Western Digital ultrastar nl-sas disks.

SAS 磁盘

SAS disk

企业 SAS 磁盘是企业存储行业的传统重磅工具,其构建旨在提供旋转盘片可提供的最佳性能和可靠性。SAS 磁盘容量与 NL-SAS 或 NAS 驱动器相比低到令人惊讶,这是由于磁盘旋转的速度高达 15000 RPM。尽管 SAS 驱动器听起来可能是高性能存储的最终答案,但市场上出现的许多消费级和企业级闪存的选项大大降低了 SAS 驱动器的竞争力。 例如,企业级 SAS 驱动器由于其低性价比,已全面退出 FreeNAS 和 TrueNAS 产品线,在 2016 年几乎全部被闪存驱动器(SSD 或 NVMe)取代。

Enterprise SAS disk is a traditional heavyweight tool in the enterprise storage industry, which is built to provide the best performance and reliability that a rotating disk can provide. SAS disk capacity is surprisingly low compared to nl-sas or NAS drives due to the fact that the disk spins up to 15000 rpm. Although SAS drives may sound like the ultimate answer to high-performance storage, many consumer and enterprise flash options on the market have greatly reduced the competitiveness of SAS drives. For example, because of its low cost performance, enterprise class SAS drives have completely withdrawn from the freenas and truenas product lines, and almost all of them were replaced by flash drives (SSD or nvme) in 2016.

SATA 和 SAS 闪存 SSD

SATA and SAS flash SSD

近年来,闪存技术取得了长足的进步,推动了移动设备的革命,以及在通用 PC 和服务器中的普遍应用。 与机械硬盘不同,闪存对振动不敏感,并且可以在确保相当高的可靠性下大大提高速度。虽然目前闪存存储每 GB 的价格仍然更高,但是随着价格差距不断缩小,正在逐步进入 TrueNAS 系统。

In recent years, flash memory technology has made great progress, promoting the revolution of mobile devices, as well as the universal application in general PC and server. Unlike mechanical hard disks, flash memory is insensitive to vibration and can greatly improve speed while ensuring considerable reliability. Although the price of flash memory per GB is still higher, with the price gap narrowing, it is gradually entering truenas system.

将闪存存储引入主流市场的最快途径是让供应商使用标准 SATA/SAS 硬盘接口和外形,有效地模拟标准硬盘,但它没有活动部件。因此,闪存固态硬盘(SSD)具有 SATA 接口,大小为 2.5 英寸笔记本电脑硬盘,从而可以替代传统硬盘。 闪存 SSD 可以代替 HDD 用作 FreeNAS 系统上的主存储,从而可以实现更快、更小或更昂贵的存储解决方案。如果要“全闪存”,请购买预算允许的最高质量的闪存固态硬盘,重点是要确保电源安全性和拥有与预期写入工作量相匹配的写入寿命。

The fastest way to introduce flash storage into the mainstream market is to let suppliers use the standard SATA / SAS hard disk interface and shape to effectively simulate the standard hard disk, but it has no moving parts. Therefore, flash solid state drive (SSD) has a SATA interface and a 2.5-inch notebook hard disk, which can replace the traditional hard disk. Flash SSD can replace HDD as the primary storage on freenas system, which can realize faster, smaller or more expensive storage solution. If you want “full flash”, buy the highest quality flash SSD you can budget for, focusing on ensuring power security and having a write life that matches the expected write workload.

NVMe

NVMe

尽管 SSD 可以假装它们是快速的 HDD,但 NVMe 标准是一种“本地”闪存协议,它充分利用了闪存的非线性和并行特性。NVMe 的主要优势通常是其低延迟性能,并且已迅速成为系统引导和其他任务的主流选择。它最初仅限于 PCIe 和 M.2 等扩展卡形式,但新的 U.2 接口提供了一种相当通用的解决方案,其中包括 2.5 英寸驱动器外形和可外部访问的 NVMe 接口(但通常不支持热插拔)。请注意,NVMe 设备运行起来可能会非常热,可能需要专用的散热器。

Although SSDs can pretend that they are fast HDDs, nvme standard is a “local” flash protocol that takes full advantage of the nonlinearity and parallelism of flash memory. The main advantage of nvme is usually its low latency performance, and it has rapidly become the mainstream choice for system boot and other tasks. At first, it was limited to the form of expansion cards such as PCIe and m.2, but the new U.2 interface provides a fairly general solution, including a 2.5-inch drive shape and an externally accessible nvme interface (but usually does not support hot swap). Please note that nvme devices may be very hot to run and may require special radiators.

混合存储和闪存缓存(SLOG/ZIL/L2ARC)

Hybrid storage and flash cache (slog / ZIL / l2arc)

随着机械硬盘达到两位数 TB 容量,还有更高性能的闪存硬盘,因此我们有“两全其美”的选项可供选择。使用 TrueNAS 和 OpenZFS,您可以融合闪存和磁盘以创建“混合存储”,从而充分利用这两种存储类型。在混合配置中,大容量旋转磁盘存储数据,而 DRAM 和闪存则充当超快速读写缓存。这些技术与基于闪存的单独写日志(SLOG)结合使用可以加速写操作,其中 SLOG 用于保存 ZFS-intent log (ZIL),可以视为写缓存。在读取方面,闪存可用作二级自适应替换(读取)缓存(L2ARC),以便将最热的数据集保留在速度更快的闪存介质上。SLOG 设备适用于具有同步写入的工作负载(例如 NFS 和数据库),而 L2ARC 设备则可能更适用于具有频繁访问数据的工作负载。不过,L2ARC 设备并非始终是最佳选择,原因是内存中的第一级 ARC 将始终提供更快的缓存,同时 L2ARC 表还将使用一些内存。

With the mechanical hard disk reaching double-digit TB capacity and higher performance flash hard disk, we have the option of “best of both worlds”. With truenas and openzfs, you can combine flash and disk to create “hybrid storage” to make the most of both storage types. In the hybrid configuration, large rotating disks store data, while DRAM and flash memory act as ultra fast read / write buffers. These technologies can be used in combination with flash based write alone log (slog), which is used to save ZFS intent log (ZIL) and can be regarded as write cache. On the read side, flash memory can be used as L2 adaptive replacement (read) cache (l2arc) to keep the hottest data sets on faster flash media. Slog devices are suitable for workloads with synchronous writes (such as NFS and database), while l2arc devices may be more suitable for workloads with frequent data access. However, the l2arc device is not always the best choice because the first level arc in memory will always provide faster caching, and the l2arc table will also use some memory.

SLOG 设备不必很大,因为它只需要服务网络或本地应用程序交付的五秒钟的数据写入。大小介于 8 GB 到 32 GB 之间的高耐用性、低延迟的设备足以满足大多数现代网络的需求,并且可以对多个设备进行条带化或镜像以提高性能或冗余性。必须注意已发布的设备耐用性声明,因为 SLOG 将成为对该系统进行大多数写入操作的漏斗点。

Slog devices don’t have to be large, because it only needs five seconds of data writing delivered by the service network or local application. High durability, low latency devices between 8 GB and 32 GB are sufficient to meet the needs of most modern networks, and multiple devices can be striped or mirrored to improve performance or redundancy. Attention must be paid to the device durability statement that has been released, as slog will be the funnel point for most writes to the system.

SLOG 设备具有断电保护也至关重要。ZFS-intent log(ZIL)以及 SLOG 的目的是在发生崩溃或电源故障时保持同步写入的安全。如果 SLOG 没有断电保护,并且在电源故障后丢失了其数据,那么就无法实现使用 SLOG 的目的!检查制造商的规格参数,以确保 SLOG 设备电源安全或具有断电/故障保护功能。

It is also very important for slog equipment to have power-off protection. The purpose of ZFS intent log (ZIL) and slog is to keep the security of synchronous writing in case of crash or power failure. If slog has no power-off protection, and lost its data after power failure, then it can not achieve the purpose of using slog! Check the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure the power supply of slog equipment is safe or has power-off / fault protection function.

随机读取性能是 L2ARC 设备最重要的因素,因为它需要比正在缓存的主要存储设备支持更多的 IOPS。例如,在 40 个 SSD 的存储池前面,单个 SSD 作为 L2ARC 无效。因为与单个 SSD 作为 L2ARC 的驱动器相比,这 40 个 SSD 将能够处理更多的 IOPS。至于容量,比内存大 5 到 20 倍是一个很好的准则。例如,高端 TrueNAS 系统可以具有两位数 TB 的基于 NVMe 的 L2ARC。

Random read performance is the most important factor for l2arc devices because it needs to support more IOPs than the main storage device being cached. For example, in front of a storage pool of 40 SSDs, a single SSD is invalid as l2arc. Because these 40 SSDs will be able to handle more IOPs than a single SSD as a l2arc drive. As for capacity, 5 to 20 times larger than memory is a good rule. For example, a high-end truenas system can have a two digit terabyte nvme based l2arc.

请记住,对于 L2ARC 中的每个数据块,内存 ARC 需要一个 88 字节的条目。这可能导致 ARC 意外填充,如果系统设计不良,反而实际上有可能降低系统的性能。例如,一个充满 4KiB 块的 480GB L2ARC 将需要在内存 ARC 中存储超过 10GiB 的元数据!

Remember that for each data block in l2arc, the memory arc requires an 88 byte entry. This may lead to unexpected arc filling. If the system is poorly designed, it may actually reduce the performance of the system. For example, a 480gb l2arc full of 4kib blocks will need to store more than 10gib of metadata in the in memory arc!

自加密驱动器

Self encrypting drive

TrueNAS 支持两种形式的静态数据加密以实现隐私和合规性目标:本机 ZFS 加密和自加密驱动器(SED)。SED 不会遇到软件分区加密带来的性能开销,但不如非 SED 驱动器容易获得(因此价格可能会更高)。

Truenas supports two forms of static data encryption for privacy and compliance goals: native ZFS encryption and self encrypting drive (SED). Sed does not experience the performance overhead of software partition encryption, but it is not as easy to obtain as non sed drives (so the price may be higher).

USB 硬盘

USB hard disk

使用 FreeNAS 时,应避免将 USB 硬盘用于主要存储,但在条件受限时可以将其用于非常基本的备份。虽然 TrueNAS 不能自动执行此过程,但是可以连接 USB HDD,在命令行中复制它,并且最好将移除以安全保存。

When using freenas, you should avoid using USB hard disk for primary storage, but when conditions are limited, you can use it for very basic backup. Although truenas cannot automate this process, it can connect to a USB HDD, copy it on the command line, and preferably remove it for safe storage.

启动设备

Start the device

从 8 GB 或更大的 USB 闪存驱动器启动 FreeNAS 系统曾经非常流行,但是由于 USB 驱动器质量存在很大差异,并且现代 TrueNAS 版本对启动池的驱动器写入操作有所增加,因此建议您选择其他选项。 因此,

It used to be very popular to boot freenas system from 8 GB or larger USB flash drive. However, due to the great difference of USB drive quality and the increase of drive write operation in boot pool in modern truenas version, it is recommended that you choose other options. Therefore,


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