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【速搜问答】如何做印刷电路板

问答 admin 10个月前 (02-01) 187次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

选择一种做电路板的方法,通常应该根据这种方法所需的材料是否可得,这种方法的技术难度水平,以及你希望印刷电路板能达到的质量水平。使用印刷电路板布局软件将你的电路原理图转换到印刷电路板的布局当中。最后在电路板上安装和焊接电子元件即可。

Choosing a method to make PCB usually depends on the availability of the materials required, the technical difficulty level of this method, and the quality level you want the PCB to achieve. Use PCB layout software to convert your circuit schematic to PCB layout. Finally, the electronic components can be installed and welded on the circuit board.

你已经设计好了电路。而且你也做了计算机辅助模拟,而电路可以正常运行。那么只剩下一件事没做了。你需要为你的电路做一块印刷电路板,如此你可以瞧瞧你电路的运行。不论你的电路是为了完成学校作业而设计的,还是为了你的公司专业产品而设计电子设备,在印刷电路板上执行你的电路,这样除了让你知道这个产品是什么样子的之外,还可以让你得到一个更专业的视角。

You’ve designed the circuit. And you do computer-aided simulation, and the circuit works. So there’s only one thing left to do. You need to make a printed circuit board for your circuit so that you can see how it works. Whether your circuit is designed for school work or for your company’s professional products, executing your circuit on a printed circuit board will not only let you know what the product looks like, but also give you a more professional perspective.

1、选择一种做电路板的方法。你的选择通常应该根据这种方法所需的材料是否可得,这种方法的技术难度水平,以及你希望印刷电路板能达到的质量水平。下列是各种方法的简介,而这些方法的主要特点有助于你进行选择:

1. Choose a way to make a circuit board. Your choice usually depends on the availability of the materials required for this method, the level of technical difficulty of this method, and the level of quality you want the printed circuit board to achieve. The following is a brief introduction of the various methods, and the main features of these methods help you choose:

酸蚀刻法:这种方法需要极度的安全措施,需要许多材料比方说蚀刻剂,而且这种方法有点慢。这种方法所得的印刷电路板质量取决于你用的材料,但是总体而言,对于简单到中等复杂程度的电路而言,这是个好方法。

Acid etching: this method requires extreme safety measures, requires a lot of materials, such as etchants, and it’s a bit slow. The quality of the printed circuit board produced by this method depends on the material you use, but overall, it’s a good method for simple to moderately complex circuits.

紫外蚀刻法:这种方法需要一些更昂贵的材料,这些材料可能不是哪儿都有。然而,方法步骤却很简单;这种方法所需的安全措施更少,而且可以满足更精细更复杂的电脑。

UV etching: this method requires more expensive materials, which may not be available everywhere. However, the steps are very simple; this method requires fewer security measures, and can meet the needs of more sophisticated and complex computers.

机械蚀刻/定线法:这种方法需要特殊的机器,这种机器要可以在板子上机械地蚀刻出不需要的铜,或者是在导线之间定线空隔板。如果你想买一台这样的机器,这会很贵。如果你想租一台,那么需要附近有车间。但是,如果你想要做许多电路副本,那么这是个好方法,这种方法也可以做出很精密的印刷电路板。

Mechanical etching / alignment: this method requires a special machine, which can mechanically etch unnecessary copper on the board, or line the empty partition between the wires. If you want to buy a machine like this, it will be very expensive. If you want to rent one, you need a workshop nearby. But if you want to make a lot of circuit copies, it’s a good way, and it can also make very precise printed circuit boards.

激光蚀刻法:这种方法通常适用于大型生产公司,但是在某些高校中也可以找到。这种方法总的概念类似于机械蚀刻法,但是是用激光束来蚀刻板子。通常很难得到这种机器,但是如果你当地的大学很幸运有这种机器,那么如果大学他们允许的话,你就可以使用他们的设备了。

Laser etching: this method is usually applied to large production companies, but it can also be found in some universities. The general concept of this method is similar to mechanical etching, but the laser beam is used to etch the board. It’s usually hard to get this kind of machine, but if your local university is lucky enough to have it, you can use their equipment if they allow it.

2、为你的电路建立印刷电路板布局。通常而言,使用印刷电路板布局软件将你的电路原理图转换到印刷电路板的布局当中。有许多印刷电路板布局创建和设计的开源软件包可供下载。我们列了如下几个可供你入门:

2. Create a PCB layout for your circuit. Generally speaking, use PCB layout software to convert your circuit schematic to PCB layout. There are many open source packages for PCB layout creation and design available for download. We have listed the following for you to get started:

PCB

PCB

Liquid PCB

Liquid PCB

ShortCut

ShortCut

3、确定你已经收集到所选方法所需的全部材料了。

3. Make sure you have collected all the materials required for the selected method.

4、把你的电路布局画在镀铜板上。这仅仅适用于前两种方法。你可以在所选方法的细节章节查看更多细节。.

4. Draw your circuit layout on a copper plate. This only applies to the first two methods. You can see more details in the details section of the selected method. .

5、蚀刻镀铜板。如何蚀刻板子请查看细节章节。这个过程可以移除不必要的镀铜,而仅仅留下最终电路所需要的线路。

5. Etching copper plate. How to etch the board, please see the details section. This process can remove unnecessary copper plating, leaving only the lines needed for the final circuit.

6、钻安装点。所用的钻孔机器通常是在为此而专门定制的。但是,一些普通的钻孔机器经过改造也可以在家里完成这项工作。

6. Drill the mounting point. The drilling machine used is usually customized for this purpose. However, some ordinary drilling machines can also be modified to complete the work at home.

7、在电路板上安装和焊接电子元件。

7. Install and solder electronic components on the circuit board.

酸蚀刻法的特殊步骤

Special steps of acid etching

1、选择蚀刻用的酸。氯化铁是通常的选择。但是你也可以用过硫酸铵晶体或者其他化学物质。不论你选择的哪种化学蚀刻剂,这些都是很危险的材料。出了遵守本文提到的一般安全预防措施之外,你还需要阅读且遵守蚀刻时的其他安全说明。

1. Select the acid for etching. Ferric chloride is the usual choice. But you can also use ammonium persulfate crystals or other chemicals. No matter what kind of chemical etchant you choose, these are very dangerous materials. In addition to the general safety precautions mentioned in this article, you need to read and follow other safety instructions when etching.

2、画印刷电路板布局。为了进行酸蚀刻,你需要用抗蚀刻材料来画电路。如果你想用手画电路布局(不适合中型或大型电路),那么要根据不同目的来制作特殊的标记。通常实用的材料是激光打印墨水。使用激光打印来画电路布局有如下步骤:

2. Draw PCB layout. In order to do acid etching, you need to use anti etching materials to draw circuits. If you want to draw circuit layout by hand (not suitable for medium or large circuits), make special marks for different purposes. Usually, the practical material is laser printing ink. Using laser printing to draw circuit layout has the following steps:

在一张白印刷纸上打印出印刷电路板布局。做之前,你应该确保这个布局和你的电路是镜像关系(在打印时,大部分印刷电路板布局程序都有这个选项)。这是唯一用到激光打印机的一步。

Print the printed circuit board layout on a piece of white paper. Before doing this, you should make sure that the layout is mirror image to your circuit (most PCB layout programs have this option when printing). This is the only step to use a laser printer.

把纸经过打印的那一面贴在铜板上。

Stick the printed side of the paper on the copper plate.

用普通的熨斗来熨纸面,所需的时间取决于所用的纸张和墨水的类型。

The time it takes to iron paper with an ordinary iron depends on the type of paper and ink used.

把铜板和纸在热水里浸泡几分钟(最长 10 分钟)。

Soak the copper and paper in hot water for a few minutes (up to 10 minutes).

撕开纸。如果有些地方撕不掉,你可以试着泡久一点。如果一切都好了,在铜板上将会有你的电路板布局,还有黑色标记线。

Tear the paper. If there are places you can’t tear off, you can try to soak a little longer. If all is well, there will be your layout of the circuit board on the copper plate, as well as the black marking line.

3、准备酸。 etchant 根据你选择的“蚀刻酸”不同,可能会有些其他额外说明。比如,一些结晶酸需要在热水里融解使用,而其他的酸则不需要。

3. Prepare the acid. Etchant may have additional instructions depending on the etching acid you choose. For example, some crystalline acids need to be melted in hot water, while others don’t.

4、把铜板浸入酸中。

4. Immerse the copper plate in acid.

5、每隔 3-5 分钟搅拌一下。

5. Stir every 3-5 minutes.

6、当所有不需要的铜都被蚀刻掉了的时候,拿出铜板并清洗干净。

6. When all the unnecessary copper is etched away, take out the copper plate and clean it.

7、去除画图用的绝缘材料。有特定的化学溶剂可以去除任何一种画电路布局所用的绝缘材料。但是,如果你没有这种溶剂,你也可以用砂纸来去除他们。

7. Remove the insulating material for drawing. There are specific chemical solvents that can remove any kind of insulation used to draw circuit layouts. But if you don’t have the solvent, you can also use sandpaper to remove them.

紫外蚀刻法的特殊步骤

Special steps of UV etching

1、在特定的镀铜板上画电路布局。

1. Draw the circuit layout on a specific copper plate.

2、在铜板上盖上透明的薄板(任选一块)

2. Cover the copper plate with a transparent sheet (choose one)

3、把铜板放进紫外蚀刻机/间里。

3. Put the copper plate in the UV etcher / room.

4、根据铜板和机器的规格大小,设定紫外蚀刻机的运行时间。

4. According to the size of copper plate and machine, set the running time of UV etcher.

警告

warning

如果你使用的是酸蚀刻法,你得遵守下列预防措施:

If you are using acid etching, you have to observe the following precautions:

在安全的地方使用玻璃容器存放酸。

Store acid in glass containers in a safe place.

在酸溶液的容器上贴上标签,并且把他们放到儿童触摸不到的地方。

Label containers of acid solutions and keep them out of the reach of children.

不要把用过的酸倒入家里的下水道。当你用完酸之后,把他们保存好,倒进循环利用中心/危险废料处理设备。

Don’t pour used acid into the sewer at home. When you run out of acid, save them and dump them into a recycling center / hazardous waste treatment facility.

使用酸蚀刻法的时候要带手套和面罩。

Wear gloves and masks when using acid etching.

混合搅拌酸液的时候要十分小心。不用使用金属物品搅拌,也不要把容器放在桌子边缘。

Be very careful when mixing acid. Do not use metal objects to stir and do not place containers on the edge of the table.


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