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【速搜问答】无刷直流电机和有刷直流电机有什么区别

问答 admin 9个月前 (01-28) 152次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

直流无刷电机由电动机主体和驱动器组成, 电动机的定子绕组多做成三相对称星形接法,驱动器由功率电子器件和集成电路等构成。直流有刷电机的基本构造的组件包括定子、转子、电刷和换向器。定子和转子磁场相互作用驱动电机旋转。

Brushless DC motor is composed of motor body and driver. The stator winding of motor is mostly made of three-phase symmetrical star connection. The driver is composed of power electronic devices and integrated circuits. The components of the basic structure of DC brush motor include stator, rotor, brush and commutator. The interaction of stator and rotor magnetic fields drives the motor to rotate.

电动机可根据其使用的电源类型分为两大类:AC 电动机和 DC 电动机。顾名思义,交流电动机通常使用交流电源(单相或三相)供电,并且主要用于需要大量扭矩的工业和重型应用中。另一方面,直流电动机(今天我们要关注的焦点)通常较小,并且用于基于电池(或插入直流电源)的应用中,与交流电动机相比,其工作量要少得多。他们发现它在数种设备中都有应用,从剃刀,剃须刀到儿童玩具,机器人和无人机等日常设备,无一例外。

Motors can be divided into two categories according to the type of power supply they use: AC motors and DC motors. As the name suggests, AC motors usually use AC power (single-phase or three-phase) for power supply, and are mainly used in industrial and heavy-duty applications requiring large amounts of torque. On the other hand, DC motors (the focus of our attention today) are usually smaller and are used in battery based (or plug-in DC power) applications with much less work than AC motors. They found that it was used in a number of devices, from razors and razors to children’s toys, robots and drones, without exception.

在直流电机中,可分成有刷直流电机与无刷直流电机,减速机也是如些,在一些大扭距的商品中,都必须采用直流电减速机,那麼有刷直流电机和无刷直流电机有什么差别呢?

In DC motor, can be divided into brush DC motor and brushless DC motor, reducer is also like some, in some large torque goods, must use DC reducer, so what is the difference between brush DC motor and brushless DC motor?

有刷电机直流电降速是由典型性的机电一体化商品,它是直流电机和控制器构成,运作方法为自动化控制式运作的,它不容易像直流变频变速轻载起动的同步电动机,因此不容易在负荷突然变化时造成波动与失步。从构造上而言,不论是有刷直流电机还是无刷直流电机都是有电机转子与电机定子,可是这二种直流电减速机的构造是反过来的,有刷直流电减速机的电机转子是电磁线圈散着糖芥不,与輸出轴相连接,电机定子为永磁材料。有刷电机直流电减速机就不一样的,它的电机转子是永磁材料与机壳一起和輸出轴相接,绕阻电磁线圈为电机定子,并且沒有电动机与电机转子根据霍尔元件完成电子器件换相。

The DC speed reduction of brush motor is a typical mechatronics commodity. It is composed of DC motor and controller. The operation method is automatic control. It is not easy to be like the synchronous motor with DC variable speed and light load starting, so it is not easy to cause fluctuation and out of step when the load changes suddenly. In terms of structure, both brushless DC motor and brushless DC motor have motor rotor and motor stator, but the structure of these two kinds of DC reducer is the reverse. The motor rotor of Brushless DC reducer is electromagnetic coil, which is connected with the output shaft, and the motor stator is permanent magnet material. The DC reducer of brush motor is different. Its motor rotor is made of permanent magnet material and connected with the output shaft together with the housing. The winding electromagnetic coil is the motor stator, and there is no motor and motor rotor to complete the commutation of electronic devices according to Hall element.

有刷电机直流电减速机是借助更改键入到电机定子电磁线圈上的电流量波交替变化頻率与波型,绕阻电磁线圈周边会产生一个绕直流电减速机的几何图形枢轴转动的电磁场,电磁场驱动器电机转子上的永磁材料旋转,直流电机就刚开始旋转,直流电减速机的特性与永磁材料的总数、磁通量抗压强度、键入的工作电压尺寸要素有关,与操纵特性也是有十分大的关联,有刷电机直流电减速机的变速必须有单片机设计操纵、电源电路操纵等,它的价钱成本费要比有刷直流电减速机要高许多。

The DC reducer of brush motor alternates the frequency and wave pattern by changing the current wave input to the stator electromagnetic coil of the motor. Around the winding electromagnetic coil, an electromagnetic field is generated to rotate around the geometric pivot of the DC reducer. The electromagnetic field drives the permanent magnet material on the motor rotor to rotate, and the DC motor just starts to rotate. The characteristics and characteristics of the DC reducer are similar The total number of permanent magnet materials, the compressive strength of magnetic flux and the size of input working voltage are related to the operating characteristics. The speed change of brush motor DC reducer must be controlled by single chip microcomputer design and power supply circuit. Its price and cost are much higher than that of brush motor DC reducer.

但是这类直流电减速机也是有很多优势

But this kind of DC reducer also has many advantages

1.沒有炭刷也就沒有的磨擦火苗,巨大水平上降低了因火花放电对无线通信机器设备的影响;

1. Without carbon brush, there will be no friction flame, which greatly reduces the impact of spark discharge on wireless communication equipment;

2.直流电减速机运行时因为磨擦的减少,噪声也会更低;

2. When the DC reducer is running, the noise will be lower because of the reduction of friction;

3.使用期基本上是好几千数十万为企业,但是这与滚动轴承的品质有关,有刷直流电减速机的使用寿命一般在好几百或好几千个钟头,抵达应用極限则必须拆换炭刷;

3. The service life is basically tens of thousands of enterprises, but it is related to the quality of rolling bearing. The service life of brush DC reducer is generally hundreds or thousands of hours, and the carbon brush must be removed and replaced when it reaches the application limit;

4.有刷电机直流电减速机操纵方法选用的是数据直流变频操纵,可操控性较为强,从每分几转到十几万转可完成,有刷直流电减速机起动后转速比稳定,变速也简易;

4. The control method of the brush motor DC reducer is the data DC frequency conversion control, which has strong controllability. It can be completed from several minutes to more than 100000 revolutions. The speed ratio of the brush motor DC reducer is stable after starting, and the speed change is simple;

5.有刷电机直流电减速机一般用以操纵规定高、转速比高、长期运行的商品上,如高精密的仪表设备、智能机器人等。

5. The DC reducer with brush motor is generally used to operate the commodities with high speed ratio and long-term operation, such as high-precision instruments, intelligent robots, etc.

区别一、工作原理不同

First, the working principle is different

直流无刷电机工作原理:电动机的转子上粘有已充磁的永磁体 ,用以检测电动机转子的极性,驱动器则控制电动机的启动、停止和制动;控制逆变桥各功率管的通断,产生连续转矩;控制和调整转速以及提供保护和显示等等。

Working principle of Brushless DC motor: the rotor of the motor is bonded with magnetized permanent magnet to detect the polarity of the motor rotor, and the driver controls the start, stop and braking of the motor; controls the on-off of each power tube of the inverter bridge to generate continuous torque; controls and adjusts the speed and provides protection and display, etc.

直流有刷电机工作原理:电机转动时,碳质的电刷在换向器上滑动,产生一个与定子的静止磁场相吸引的旋转磁场,电枢和定子绕组中的电流由电池或其它直流电源供给,以给电池(或直流电源)提供恒定的直流电压。

Working principle of DC brush motor: when the motor rotates, the carbon brush slides on the commutator to generate a rotating magnetic field which is attracted by the static magnetic field of the stator. The current in the armature and stator winding is supplied by the battery or other DC power supply to provide constant DC voltage to the battery (or DC power supply).

区别二、结构组成不同

Second, the structure is different

直流无刷电机由电动机主体和驱动器组成, 电动机的定子绕组多做成三相对称星形接法,驱动器由功率电子器件和集成电路等构成。

Brushless DC motor is composed of motor body and driver. The stator winding of motor is mostly made of three-phase symmetrical star connection. The driver is composed of power electronic devices and integrated circuits.

直流有刷电机的基本构造的组件包括定子、转子、电刷和换向器。定子和转子磁场相互作用驱动电机旋转。

The components of the basic structure of DC brush motor include stator, rotor, brush and commutator. The interaction of stator and rotor magnetic fields drives the motor to rotate.

工作原理与构造

Working principle and structure

操作通常,所有电动机中的两个都是基于的原理;安培定律和法拉第定律。第一定律规定,如果流过导体的任何电流的分量都与该电场成直角,则置于磁场中的电导体将受到作用力。第二个原理指出,如果导体在磁场中移动,那么垂直于该磁场的任何运动分量都会在导体的两端之间产生电势差。

In general, two of all electric motors are based on the principle of Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. The first law states that if the component of any current flowing through a conductor is at right angles to the electric field, the electric conductor placed in a magnetic field will be subjected to a force. The second principle states that if a conductor moves in a magnetic field, any motion component perpendicular to the magnetic field will produce a potential difference between the two ends of the conductor.

基于这些定律,电动机由两个主要部分组成。永磁体和一堆导体缠绕成线圈。通过向线圈通电,它变成了一块磁铁,并基于磁铁在相同的磁极排斥并在不同的磁极吸引的事实,实现了旋转运动。

Based on these laws, the motor consists of two main parts. A permanent magnet and a stack of conductors are wound into a coil. By applying electricity to the coil, it becomes a magnet and rotates based on the fact that the magnet repels at the same pole and attracts at different poles.

优缺点

Advantages and disadvantages

在有刷直流电动机中,电刷与旋转换向器一直接触。这导致产生大量摩擦,进而导致热量损失能量和电刷逐渐磨损。因此,有刷直流电动机效率低,需要定期维护。这会产生大量摩擦,并且摩擦等于热量(能量损失)和磨损。另一方面,无刷直流电机本质上是无摩擦的,因此具有很高的效率,需要零维护,并且比有刷直流电机使用寿命更长。

In a brush DC motor, the brush is always in contact with the rotary commutator. This leads to a lot of friction, which leads to heat loss, energy loss and brush wear. Therefore, the efficiency of the brushless DC motor is low and needs regular maintenance. This creates a lot of friction, and friction equals heat (energy loss) and wear. On the other hand, brushless DC motor is friction free in nature, so it has high efficiency, needs zero maintenance, and has longer service life than brushless DC motor.

但是,有刷直流电机是无刷直流电机由于其设计简单,因此与无刷同类产品相比价格便宜。另一方面,无刷直流电动机由于其复杂的设计以及驱动它们所需的额外电子组件(控制器)的额外成本,因此非常昂贵。

However, the brushless DC motor is a brushless DC motor. Because of its simple design, it is cheaper than the similar products. On the other hand, brushless DC motors are very expensive due to their complex design and the extra cost of the additional electronic components (controllers) required to drive them.

无刷直流电动机的设计复杂性使其与有刷直流电动机相比非常昂贵。在购买无刷直流电动机之前,请确保该项目的额外费用在可承受的范围内。在做出决定之前,还要考虑使用 BLDC 所需的其他附件的成本。

The design complexity of BLDCM makes it very expensive compared with BLDCM. Before purchasing a brushless DC motor, please make sure that the additional cost of the project is affordable. Before making a decision, consider the cost of other accessories needed to use the BLDC.


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