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【速搜问答】传输因数是什么

问答 admin 1个月前 (10-24) 25次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

信号衰减是通信传输的一个重要特征。信号衰减程度不但是评价通信质量优劣的重要指标,而且直接影响着通信系统的扩容升级、通信传输缆线布置中的中继距离等特性。

Signal attenuation is an important feature of communication transmission. The degree of signal attenuation is not only an important index to evaluate the quality of communication, but also has a direct impact on the expansion and upgrading of communication system and the relay distance in the layout of communication transmission cables.

信号衰减是通信传输的一个重要特征。信号衰减程度不但是评价通信质量优劣的重要指标,而且直接影响着通信系统的扩容升级、通信传输缆线布置中的中继距离等特性。为了保证通信信号质量,一般要改变通信传输两端的传输因数。传输因数是指在传输线的一个端口或横截面处的传输波与另一端口或横截面处的入射波的归一化波复数幅值之比。

Signal attenuation is an important feature of communication transmission. The degree of signal attenuation is not only an important index to evaluate the quality of communication, but also has a direct impact on the expansion and upgrading of communication system and the relay distance in the layout of communication transmission cables. In order to ensure the quality of communication signal, the transmission factors at both ends of communication transmission should be changed. Transmission factor refers to the ratio of the normalized complex wave amplitude of the transmitted wave at one port or cross section of the transmission line to the incident wave at another port or cross section.

简介

brief introduction

通信传输(Communication)就是递信息的传,是指由一地向另一地进行信息的传输与交换,其目的是传输消息然而,随着社会生产力的发展,人们对传递消息的要求也越来越高。

Communication is the transmission of information, which refers to the transmission and exchange of information from one place to another. Its purpose is to transmit messages. However, with the development of social productivity, people have higher and higher requirements for message delivery.

在通信领域,通信传输一般分为有线通信和无线通信。由于各种原因,例如衰减,导致通信信号质量差别很大。传输因数是检测通信信号质量的指标之一。传输因数是指在传输线的一个端口或横截面处的传输波与另一端口或横截面处的入射波的归一化波复数幅值之比。有线通信和无线通信改变传输因数的方法不一样。无线通信一般都是更换设备,如改用具有更大传输因数的天线。在有线通信中,一般人为加接衰减器、中继器。

In the field of communication, communication transmission is generally divided into wired communication and wireless communication. Due to various reasons, such as attenuation, the quality of communication signals varies greatly. Transmission factor is one of the indexes to detect the quality of communication signal. Transmission factor refers to the ratio of the normalized complex wave amplitude of the transmitted wave at one port or cross section of the transmission line to the incident wave at another port or cross section. Wired communication and wireless communication have different ways to change the transmission factor. Wireless communication is generally to replace equipment, such as using antenna with larger transmission factor. In general, the attenuator is used in the communication.

通信传输的分类

Classification of communication transmission

按传输媒质分类

Classification by transmission medium

有线通信:是指传输媒质为导线、电缆、光缆、波导、纳米材料等形式的通信,其特点是媒质能看得见,摸得着(明线通信、电缆通信、光缆通信)

Cable communication: refers to the communication in the form of wire, cable, optical cable, waveguide, nano material and other forms of transmission media. Its characteristics are that the media can be seen and touched (open line communication, cable communication, optical cable communication)

无线通信:是指传输媒质看不见、摸不着(如电磁波)的一种通信形式

Wireless communication: refers to the transmission medium can not see, touch (such as electromagnetic wave) a form of communication

(微波通信、 短波通信、 移动通信、 卫星通信、 散射通信)

(microwave communication, short wave communication, mobile communication, satellite communication, scattering communication)

按信道中传输的信号分类

Classification by signals transmitted in the channel

模拟信号:凡信号的某一参量(如连续波的振幅、频率、 相位, 脉冲波的振幅、宽度、位置等)可以取无限多个数值, 且直接与消息相对应的,模拟信号有时也称连续信号, 这个连续是指信号的某一参量可以连续变化数字信号:凡信号的某一参量只能取有限个数值,并且常常不直接与消息相对应的,也称离散信号

Analog signal: when a certain parameter of the signal (such as amplitude, frequency and phase of continuous wave, amplitude, width, position of pulse wave, etc.) can take infinite number of values and directly correspond to the message, analog signal is sometimes also called continuous signal, This continuity means that a certain parameter of the signal can continuously change digital signal: where a certain parameter of the signal can only take a finite number of values, and often does not directly correspond to the message, also known as discrete signal

按工作频段分类

Classification by working frequency band

长波通信

long-wave communication

中波通信

medium-wave communication

短波通信

Short wave communication

微波通信

microwave communication

按调制方式分类

Classification by modulation mode

基带传输:是指信号没有经过调制而直接送到信道中去传输的通信方式

Baseband transmission: refers to the signal without modulation and directly sent to the channel for transmission

频带传输:是指信号经过调制后再送到信道中传输,接收端有相应解调措施的通信方式

Frequency band transmission: refers to the signal after modulation and then sent to the channel for transmission, with corresponding demodulation measures at the receiving end

按按通信双方的分工及数据传输方向分类

According to the division of labor and data transmission direction of both sides of communication

对于点对点之间的通信,按消息传送的方向,通信方式可分为单工通信、半双工通信及全双工通信三种。

For point-to-point communication, according to the direction of message transmission, the communication mode can be divided into simplex communication, half duplex communication and full duplex communication.

所谓单工通信,是指消息只能单方向进行传输的一种通信工作方式。单工通信的例子很多,如广播、遥控、无线寻呼等。这里,信号(消息)只从广播发射台、遥控器和无线寻呼中心分别传到收音机、遥控对象和 BP 机上。

The so-called simplex communication refers to a communication mode in which messages can only be transmitted in one direction. There are many examples of simplex communication, such as broadcasting, remote control, wireless paging, etc. Here, the signal (message) is only transmitted to the radio, the remote control object and the BP machine respectively from the broadcasting transmitting station, the remote controller and the wireless paging center.

所谓半双工通信方式,是指通信双方都能收发消息,但不能同时进行收和发的工作方式。对讲机、收发报机等都是这种通信方式。所谓全双工通信,是指通信双方可同时进行双向传输消息的工作方式。在这种方式下,双方都可同时进行收发消息。很明显,全双工通信的信道必须是双向信道。生活中全双工通信的例子非常多,如普通电话、手机等。

The so-called half duplex communication mode refers to the working mode that both sides of communication can receive and receive messages, but can not receive and send messages at the same time. Walkie talkie, transceiver and so on are all this way of communication. The so-called full duplex communication refers to the working mode in which both sides of communication can simultaneously transmit messages in two directions. Both sides can send and receive messages at the same time. Obviously, the channel of full duplex communication must be bidirectional. There are many examples of full duplex communication in our life, such as ordinary telephone, mobile phone, etc.

衰减

attenuation

定义

definition

信号在传输介质中传播时,将会有一部分能量转化成热能或者被传输介质吸收,从而造成信号强度不断减弱,这种现象称为衰减。在电子设备中,为防止输入级因信号过大而限幅或阻塞,又人为加接衰减器。

When the signal propagates in the transmission medium, a part of the energy will be converted into heat energy or absorbed by the transmission medium, resulting in the continuous weakening of the signal strength. This phenomenon is called attenuation. In electronic equipment, in order to prevent the input stage from limiting or blocking due to excessive signal, an attenuator is added artificially.

衰减产生的原因

Causes of attenuation

1、来自光纤本身的损耗,包括光纤材料本身的固有吸收损耗、材料中的杂质吸收损耗(尤其是残留在光纤内的 OH-成分导致的损耗)、瑞利散射损耗以及由于光纤结构不完善引起的散射损耗。

1. The loss from the optical fiber itself includes the inherent absorption loss of the optical fiber material itself, the absorption loss of impurities in the material (especially the loss caused by the OH – component remaining in the fiber), Rayleigh scattering loss and scattering loss caused by the imperfect structure of the optical fiber.

本征吸收:光纤基础材料(如 SiO2)固有的吸收,不是杂质或缺陷引起的,因此,本征吸收基本确定了某一种材料吸收损耗的下限。

Intrinsic absorption: the inherent absorption of optical fiber basic materials (such as SiO2), which is not caused by impurities or defects. Therefore, intrinsic absorption basically determines the lower limit of absorption loss of a certain material.

杂质吸收:由光纤材料的不纯净而造成的附加吸收损耗(灰尘,金属离子等)。

Impurity absorption: additional absorption loss (dust, metal ions, etc.) caused by impure optical fiber materials.

散射损耗:由于光纤的材料、形状、折射率分布等的缺陷或不均匀,使光纤中传导的光发生散射,由此产生的损耗。

Scattering loss: due to the defects or inhomogeneity of the material, shape and refractive index distribution of the optical fiber, the conducted light in the optical fiber is scattered, resulting in the loss.

2、由于光纤经过集束制成光缆,在各种环境下进行光缆敷设、光纤接续以及作为系统的耦合与连接等引起的光纤附加损耗。包括光纤/光缆的弯曲损耗、微弯损耗、光纤线路中的连接损耗、光器件之间的耦合损耗等。

2. Because the optical fiber is made into optical cable through bundle, the additional loss of optical fiber is caused by laying, connecting and coupling the optical fiber in various environments. It includes bending loss, micro bending loss, connection loss in optical fiber line and coupling loss between optical devices.

改变传输因数的方法

Methods of changing transmission factor

中继器

Repeater

中继器(RP repeater)是工作在物理层上的连接设备。适用于完全相同的两类网络的互连,主要功能是通过对数据信号的重新发送或者转发,来扩大网络传输的距离。 中继器是对信号进行再生和还原的网络设备:OSI 模型的物理层设备。

A repeater is a connected device that works on the physical layer. It is suitable for the interconnection of two identical networks. Its main function is to extend the distance of network transmission by retransmission or forwarding data signals. Repeater is a network device that regenerates and restores signals: physical layer device of OSI model.

中继器是局域网环境下用来延长网络距离的最简单最廉价的网络互联设备,操作在 OSI 的物理层,中继器对在线路上的信号具有放大再生的功能,用于扩展局域网网段的长度(仅用于连接相同的局域网网段)。

Repeater is the simplest and cheapest network interconnection device used to extend the network distance in LAN environment. It operates in the physical layer of OSI. It has the function of amplifying and regenerating the signal on the line, and is used to extend the length of LAN segment (only used to connect the same LAN segment).

中继器(RP repeater)是连接网络线路的一种装置,常用于两个网络节点之间物理信号的双向转发工作。中继器主要完成物理层的功能,负责在两个节点的物理层上按位传递信息,完成信号的复制、调整和放大功能,以此来延长网络的长度。由于存在损耗,在线路上传输的信号功率会逐渐衰减,衰减到一定程度时将造成信号失真,因此会导致接收错误。中继器就是为解决这一问题而设计的。它完成物理线路的连接,对衰减的信号进行放大,保持与原数据相同。一般情况下,中继器的两端连接的是相同的媒体,但有的中继器也可以完成不同媒体的转接工作。从理论上讲中继器的使用是无限的,网络也因此可以无限延长。事实上这是不可能的,因为网络标准中都对信号的延迟范围作了具体的规定,中继器只能在此规定范围内进行有效的工作,否则会引起网络故障。

RP repeater is a kind of device connecting network lines, which is usually used to forward physical signals between two network nodes. The repeater mainly completes the function of the physical layer, which is responsible for transmitting information by bit on the physical layer of two nodes, completing the functions of signal replication, adjustment and amplification, so as to extend the length of the network. Due to the existence of loss, the signal power transmitted on the line will gradually decay, and when it is attenuated to a certain extent, it will cause signal distortion, which will lead to receiving error. Repeater is designed to solve this problem. It completes the connection of the physical circuit, amplifies the attenuated signal and keeps the same as the original data. In general, both ends of the repeater are connected to the same media, but some repeaters can also complete the transfer of different media. Theoretically speaking, the use of repeaters is unlimited, so the network can be extended indefinitely. In fact, this is impossible because the delay range of the signal is specified in the network standards, and the repeater can only work effectively within the specified range, otherwise it will cause network failure.

衰减器

attenuator

衰减器是一种提供衰减的电子元器件, 广泛地应用于电子设备中,它的主要用途是:(1)调整电路中信号的大小;(2)在比较法测量电路中,可用来直读被测网络的衰减值;(3)改善阻抗匹配,若某些电路要求有一个比较稳定的负载阻抗时,则可在此电路与实际负载阻抗之间插入一个衰减器,能够缓冲阻抗的变化。

Attenuator is an electronic component that provides attenuation, Widely used in electronic equipment, its main purposes are: (1) adjusting the size of the signal in the circuit; (2) in the comparative measurement circuit, it can be used to read the attenuation value of the network under test; (3) to improve the impedance matching. If some circuits require a relatively stable load impedance, an attenuator can be inserted between the circuit and the actual load impedance, which can slow down The change of impulse impedance.

衰减器是在指定的频率范围内,一种用以引入一预定衰减的电路。一般以所引入衰减的分贝数及其特性阻抗的欧姆数来标明。在有线电视系统里广泛使用衰减器以便满足多端口对电平的要求。如放大器的输入端、输出端电平的控制、分支衰减量的控制。衰减器有无源衰减器和有源衰减器两种。有源衰减器与其他热敏元件相配合组成可变衰减器,装置在放大器内用于自动增益或斜率控制电路中。无源衰减器有固定衰减器和可调衰减器。

Attenuator is a circuit used to introduce a predetermined attenuation in a specified frequency range. It is generally indicated by the decibel number of the attenuation introduced and the ohmic number of the characteristic impedance. Attenuator is widely used in cable TV system to meet the level requirements of multi port. Such as amplifier input, output level control, branch attenuation control. There are two kinds of attenuators: passive attenuator and active attenuator. The active attenuator is combined with other thermal elements to form a variable attenuator, which is used in the automatic gain or slope control circuit in the amplifier. Passive attenuator has fixed attenuator and adjustable attenuator.


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