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【速搜问答】Orbot是什么

问答 admin 1年前 (2020-09-08) 272次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

Orbot为一自由软件计划,以提供在互联网上谷歌Android智能手机的匿名应用。它作为像Tor网络这样的移动设备之应用实例,并允许设备上的网络浏览器、邮箱客户端、地图程序等经由Tor网络之流量路由上为用户提供匿名之需要的应用。

Orbot is a free software program to provide anonymous applications for Google Android smartphones on the Internet. As an application example of mobile devices such as tor network, it allows web browser, mailbox client and map program on the device to provide anonymous applications for users through the traffic routing of tor network.

Orbot 为一自由软件计划,以提供在互联网上谷歌 Android 智能手机的匿名应用。它作为像 Tor 网络这样的移动设备之应用实例,并允许设备上的网络浏览器、邮箱客户端、地图程序等经由 Tor 网络之流量路由上为用户提供匿名之需要的应用。

Orbot is a free software program to provide anonymous applications for Google Android smartphones on the Internet. As an application example of mobile devices such as tor network, it allows web browser, mailbox client and map program on the device to provide anonymous applications for users through the traffic routing of tor network.

Orbot 被用来保持在智能手机上的通信安全而阻绝政府可能的监控,而实际上世界各地的政府经常监控不同政见者的手机通信。

Orbot is used to keep communications secure on smartphones and block possible government monitoring, while governments around the world often monitor the mobile communications of dissidents.

自由软件

free software

自由软件(英语:free software),根据自由软件基金会对其的定义,是一类可以不受限制地自由使用、复制、研究、修改和分发的,尊重用户自由的软件。这方面的不受限制正是自由软件最重要的本质,与自由软件相对的是专有软件(proprietary software),或被称为私有软件、封闭软件(其定义与是否收取费用无关──自由软件不一定是免费软件)。自由软件受到选定的“自由软件许可协议协议”保护而发布(或是放置在公有领域),其发布以源代码为主,二进制文件可有可无。自由软件许可证的类型主要有 GPL 许可证和 BSD 许可证两种。

Free software (English: free software), according to the definition of free software foundation, is a kind of software that can be freely used, copied, researched, modified and distributed without restriction, and respecting the freedom of users. This is the most important nature of free software. Compared with free software, proprietary software, or private software or closed software (its definition has nothing to do with whether to charge or not – free software is not necessarily free software). Free software is released (or placed in the public domain) under the protection of the selected “free software license agreement”. Its distribution is mainly source code, and binary files are optional. There are two types of free software license: GPL license and BSD license.

Tor

Tor

Tor是实现匿名通信的自由软件。其名源于“The Onion Router”(洋葱路由器)的英语缩写。用户可透过 Tor 接达由全球志愿者免费提供,包含 7000+个中继的覆盖网络,从而达至隐藏用户真实地址、避免网络监控及流量分析的目的。Tor 用户的互联网活动(包括浏览在线网站、帖子以及即时消息等通信形式)相对较难追踪。Tor 的设计原意在于保障用户的个人隐私,以及不受监控地进行秘密通信的自由和能力。

Tor is a free software for anonymous communication. Its name comes from the English abbreviation of the Onion Router. Users can access the coverage network with 7000 + relays provided by global volunteers free of charge through tor, so as to hide the user’s real address and avoid network monitoring and traffic analysis. Tor users’ Internet activities (including browsing online websites, posts and instant messaging) are relatively difficult to track. Tor is designed to protect the privacy of users, as well as the freedom and ability of secret communication without monitoring.

Tor 不会阻止在线网站判断用户是否通过 Tor 访问该网站。尽管它保护用户的隐私,但却不会掩饰用户正在使用 Tor 这一事实。有些网站会对使用 Tor 的用户进行限制。MediaWiki 的扩展 Torblock 便是其中一个例子,其能自动地限制透过 Tor 进行的编辑。而使用了 Torblock 的维基百科则容许用户在某些情况下透过 Tor 编辑其内容。

Tor does not prevent online sites from judging whether users are accessing the site through tor. Although it protects users’ privacy, it does not hide the fact that users are using tor. Some websites impose restrictions on users who use tor. One example is MediaWiki’s extended torblock, which automatically limits editing through tor. Wikipedia, which uses torblock, allows users to edit their content through tor in some cases.

Tor 透过在 5 层协议栈中的应用层进行加密,从而实现洋葱路由这一种技术。Tor 会对包括下一个中继的 IP 地址在内的数据,进行多次加密,并透过虚拟电路(包括随机选择的 Tor 中继)将其提交。每个中继都会对一层加密的数据进行解密,以知道数据的下一个发送目的地,然后将剩余的加密数据发送给它。最后的中继会解密最内层的加密数据,并在不会泄露或得知源 IP 地址的情况下,将原始数据发送至目标地址。

Tor implements onion routing by encrypting the application layer in the 5-layer protocol stack. Tor encrypts the data including the IP address of the next relay multiple times and submits it through virtual circuits (including randomly selected tor relays). Each relay will decrypt the encrypted data in one layer to know the next destination of the data, and then send the remaining encrypted data to it. The final relay will decrypt the innermost encrypted data and send the original data to the destination address without disclosing or knowing the source IP address.

攻击者可能会尝试透过某些手段来使 Tor 用户去匿名化。包括利用 Tor 用户电脑上的软件漏洞。美国国家安全局拥有针对 Tor 安装包中所捆绑的旧版本 Firefox 漏洞的技术(代号“EgotisticalGiraffe”),并曾利用 XKeyscore 系统来密切监控 Tor 用户。不少学者亦就如何破解 Tor 网络进行过学术研究,此一行为受到 Tor 项目公司所肯定。开发及维护 Tor 所需的一大部分费用由美国联邦政府所捐助,过去则以海军研究办公室及国防高等研究计划署的名义捐助。

Attackers may try to make tor users anonymous by some means. This includes the exploitation of software vulnerabilities on tor users’ computers. The NSA has the technology (codenamed “egotistical GIRAFFE”) for vulnerabilities in older versions of Firefox bundled in tor packages, and has used the xkeyscore system to closely monitor tor users. Many scholars have also conducted academic research on how to crack the tor network, which is affirmed by the tor project company. In the past, most of the maintenance costs were contributed by the United States Defense Research Agency and the United States Naval Research Institute.


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