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【速搜问答】Linux版本是什么

问答 admin 2个月前 (09-02) 36次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

Linux主要作为Linux发行版的一部分而使用。这些发行版由个人,松散组织的团队,以及商业机构和志愿者组织编写。它们通常包括了其他的系统软件和应用软件,以及一个用来简化系统初始安装的安装工具,和让软件安装升级的集成管理器。

Linux is mainly used as part of the Linux distribution. These releases are written by individuals, loosely organized teams, as well as business and volunteer organizations. They usually include other system software and application software, as well as an installation tool to simplify the initial installation of the system, and an integrated manager for software installation and upgrading.

Linux 主要作为 Linux 发行版(通常被称为”distro“)的一部分而使用。这些发行版由个人,松散组织的团队,以及商业机构和志愿者组织编写。它们通常包括了其他的系统软件和应用软件,以及一个用来简化系统初始安装的安装工具,和让软件安装升级的集成管理器。

Linux is used primarily as part of a Linux distribution (often referred to as “distro”). These releases are written by individuals, loosely organized teams, as well as business and volunteer organizations. They usually include other system software and application software, as well as an installation tool to simplify the initial installation of the system, and an integrated manager for software installation and upgrading.

大多数系统还包括了像提供 GUI 界面的 XFree86 之类的曾经运行于 BSD 的程序。 一个典型的 Linux 发行版包括:Linux 内核,一些 GNU 程序库和工具,命令行 shell,图形界面的 X Window 系统和相应的桌面环境,如 KDE 或 GNOME,并包含数千种从办公套件,编译器,文本编辑器到科学工具的应用软件。

Most systems also include programs that used to run on BSD, such as XFree86, which provides GUI interfaces. A typical Linux distribution includes: Linux kernel, some GNU libraries and tools, command-line shell, graphical interface X window system and corresponding desktop environment, such as KDE or gnome, and contains thousands of applications from office suite, compiler, text editor to scientific tools.

版本介绍

Version introduction

简介

brief introduction

Linux 是一类 Unix 计算机操作系统的统称。Linux 操作系统的内核的名字也是“Linux”。Linux 操作系统也是自由软件和开放源代码发展中最著名的例子。严格来讲,Linux 这个词本身只表示 Linux 内核,但在实际上人们已经习惯了用 Linux 来形容整个基于 Linux 内核,并且使用 GNU 工程各种工具和数据库的操作系统。Linux 得名于计算机业余爱好者 Linus Torvalds。

Linux is the general name of a kind of UNIX computer operating system. The name of the kernel of Linux operating system is also “Linux”. Linux is also the most famous example of the development of free software and open source code. Strictly speaking, the word Linux itself only means the Linux kernel, but in fact, people have been used to using Linux to describe the entire Linux kernel based operating system and using GNU engineering tools and databases. Linux is named after the computer amateur Linus Torvalds.

来历

origin

Linux 是一个诞生于网络、成长于网络且成熟于网络的奇特的操作系统。1991 年,芬兰大学生 Linus Torvalds 萌发了开发一个自由的 UNIX 操作系统的想法,当年,Linux 就诞生了,为了不让这个羽毛未丰的操作系统夭折,Linus 将自已的作品 Linux 通过 Internet 发布。从此一大批知名的、不知名的电脑黑客、编程人员加入到开发过程中来,Linux 逐渐成长起来。

Linux is a peculiar operating system born in the network, growing up in the network and mature in the network. In 1991, Finnish university student Linus Torvalds germinated the idea of developing a free UNIX operating system. In that year, Linux was born. In order not to let the fledgling operating system die, Linus released his own work Linux through the Internet. From then on, a large number of well-known and unknown computer hackers and programmers joined the development process, and Linux gradually grew up.

Linux 一开始是要求所有的源码必须公开,并且任何人均不得从 Linux 交易中获利。然而这种纯粹的自由软件的理想对于 Linux 的普及和发展是不利的,于是 Linux 开始转向 GPL,成为 GNU 阵营中的主要一员。

Linux initially required that all source code must be open, and no one should profit from the Linux transaction. However, the ideal of pure free software is disadvantageous to the popularization and development of Linux, so Linux began to turn to GPL and become a major member of GNU camp.

Linux 凭借优秀的设计,不凡的性能,加上 IBM、INTEL、CA、CORE、ORACLE 等国际知名企业的大力支持,市场份额逐步扩大,逐渐成为主流操作系统之一。

With its excellent design, outstanding performance, and the strong support of IBM, Intel, CA, core, Oracle and other international well-known enterprises, Linux has gradually expanded its market share and gradually become one of the mainstream operating systems.

发行版

Release

简介

brief introduction

发行版为许多不同的目的而制作, 包括对不同计算机结构的支持, 对一个具体区域或语言的本地化,实时应用,和嵌入式系统,甚至许多版本故意地只加入免费软件。已经有超过三百个发行版被积极的开发,最普遍被使用的发行版有大约十二个。

Distributions are made for many different purposes, including support for different computer architectures, localization of a specific region or language, real-time applications, and embedded systems, and even many versions intentionally include free software only. More than 300 distributions have been actively developed, with about 12 of the most widely used.

Fedora Core

Fedora Core

Fedora Core(自第七版直接更名为 Fedora)是众多 Linux 发行版之一。它是一套从 Red Hat Linux 发展出来的免费 Linux 系统。Fedora Core 的前身就是 Red Hat Linux。Fedora 是一个开放的、创新的、前瞻性的操作系统和平台,基于 Linux。它允许任何人自由地使用、修改和重发布,无论现在还是将来。它由一个强大的社群开发,这个社群的成员以自己的不懈努力,提供并维护自由、开放源码的软件和开放的标准。Fedora 项目由 Fedora 基金会管理和控制,得到了 Red Hat, Inc. 的支持。Fedora 是一个独立的操作系统,是 Linux 的一个发行版,可运行的体系结构包括 x86(即 i386-i686), x86_64 和 PowerPC。

Fedora Core (renamed Fedora directly from release 7) is one of many Linux distributions. It is a free Linux system developed from Red Hat Linux. The predecessor of Fedora Core is Red Hat Linux. Fedora is an open, innovative and forward-looking operating system and platform based on Linux. It allows anyone to use, modify, and redistribute freely, now and in the future. It was developed by a strong community of members who, with their unremitting efforts, provide and maintain free, open source software and open standards. The Fedora project is managed and controlled by the Fedora foundation and supported by red hat, Inc. Fedora is an independent operating system, is a distribution of Linux, the running architecture includes x86 (i.e. i386-i686), x86_ 64 and PowerPC.

Debian

Debian

Debian Project 诞生于 1993 年 8 月 13 日,它的目标是提供一个稳定容错的 Linux 版本。支持 Debian 的不是某家公司,而是许多在其改进过程中投入了大量时间的开发人员,这种改进吸取了早期 Linux 的经验。

Debian project was born on August 13, 1993. Its goal is to provide a stable and fault-tolerant version of Linux. Debian is not supported by one company, but by many developers who have invested a lot of time in its improvement process, which draws on the experience of early Linux.

Debian 以其稳定性著称,虽然它的早期版本 Slink 有一些问题,但是它的现有版本 Potato 已经相当稳定了。这个版本更多的使用了 pluggable authentication modules (PAM),综合了一些更易于处理的需要认证的软件(如 winbind for Samba)。

Debian is known for its stability. Although its early version of slink had some problems, its existing version, potato, is quite stable. This version uses more pluggable authentication modules (PAM) and integrates some more easily handled authentication software (such as winbind for Samba).

Debian 的安装完全是基于文本的,对于其本身来说这不是一件坏事。但对于初级用户来说却并非这样。因为它仅仅使用 fdisk 作为分区工具而没有自动分区功能,所以它的磁盘分区过程令人十分讨厌。磁盘设置完毕后,软件工具包的选择通过一个名为 dselect 的工具实现,但它不向用户提供安装基本工具组(如开发工具)的简易设置步骤。最后需要使用 anXious 工具配置 X Windows,这个过程与其他版本的 X Windows 配置过程类似。完成这些配置后,Debian 就可以使用了。

Debian’s installation is completely text-based, which is not a bad thing in itself. But this is not the case for primary users. Because it only uses fdisk as a partitioning tool and has no automatic partitioning function, its disk partitioning process is very annoying. After the disk is set up, the software kit is selected through a tool named dselect, but it does not provide users with simple setup steps for installing basic tool groups (such as development tools). Finally, you need to use the anxious tool to configure x windows, which is similar to other versions of X windows. After these configurations are complete, Debian is ready to use.

Debian 主要通过基于 Web 的论坛和邮件列表来提供技术支持。作为服务器平台,Debian 提供一个稳定的环境。为了保证它的稳定性,开发者不会在其中随意添加新技术,而是通过多次测试之后才选定合适的技术加入。当前最新正式版本是 Debian 6,采用的内核是 Linux 2.6.32。Debian 6 第一次 包含了一个 100%开源的 Linux 内核,这个内核中不再包含任何闭源的硬件驱动。所有的闭源软件都被隔离成单独的软件包,放到 Debian 软件源的 “non-free” 部分。由此,Debian 用户便可以自由地选择是使用一个完全开源的系统还是添加一些闭源驱动。

Debian provides technical support mainly through web based forums and mailing lists. As a server platform, Debian provides a stable environment. In order to ensure its stability, developers will not add new technologies at will, but choose appropriate technologies to join after many tests. Debian 2.6 is the latest version of Linux. Debian 6 includes for the first time a 100% open source Linux kernel that no longer contains any closed source hardware drivers. All closed source software is isolated into separate packages and placed in the “non free” section of Debian software source. As a result, Debian users are free to choose whether to use a fully open source system or add some closed source drivers.

Mandrake

Mandrake

MandrakeSoft,Linux Mandrake 的发行商,在 1998 年由一个推崇 Linux 的小组创立,它的目标是尽量让工作变得更简单。最终,Mandrake 给人们提供了一个优秀的图形安装界面,它的最新版本还包含了许多 Linux 软件包。

Mandrakesoft, the publisher of Linux Mandrake, was founded in 1998 by a Linux advocacy group with the goal of making the job as simple as possible. In the end, Mandrake provides an excellent graphical installation interface, and its latest version includes many linux packages.

作为 Red Hat Linux 的一个分支,Mandrake 将自己定位在桌面市场的最佳 Linux 版本上。但该公司还是支持服务器上的安装,而且成绩并不坏。Mandrake 的安装非常简单明了,为初级用户设置了简单的安装选项。它完全使用 GUI 界面,还为磁盘分区制作了一个适合各类用户的简单 GUI 界面。软件包的选择非常标准,另外还有对软件组和单个工具包的选项。安装完毕后,用户只需重启系统并登录进入即可。

As a branch of Red Hat Linux, Mandrake positions itself as the best Linux version in the desktop market. But the company still supports the installation on the server, and the results are not bad. Mandrake’s installation is very simple and straightforward, with simple installation options for novice users. It completely uses GUI interface, and makes a simple GUI interface suitable for all kinds of users. The selection of software packages is very standard. There are also options for software groups and individual toolkits. After installation, users only need to restart the system and log in.

Mandrake 主要通过邮件列表和 Mandrak 自己的 Web 论坛提供技术支持。Mandrak 对桌面用户来说是一个非常不错的选择,它还可作为一款优秀的服务器系统,尤其适合 Linux 新手使用。它使用最新版本的内核,拥有许多用户需要在 Linux 服务器环境中使用的软件——数据库和 Web 服务器。

Mandrake provides technical support mainly through mailing lists and mandrak’s own web forums. Mandrak is a very good choice for desktop users. It can also be used as an excellent server system, especially suitable for novice Linux users. It uses the latest version of the kernel and has many software users need to use in the Linux server environment — database and web server.

Mandrak 没有重大的软件缺陷,只是它更加关注桌面市场,较少关注服务器市场。

Mandrak doesn’t have major software defects, but it focuses more on the desktop market and less on the server market.

Ubuntu

Ubuntu

Ubuntu 是一个以桌面应用为主的 Linux 操作系统,其名称来自非洲南部祖鲁语或豪萨语的“ubuntu”一词(译为吾帮托或乌班图),意思是“人性”、“我的存在是因为大家的存在”,是非洲传统的一种价值观,类似华人社会的“仁爱”思想。Ubuntu 基于 Debian 发行版和 unity 桌面环境,与 Debian 的不同在于它每 6 个月会发布一个新版本。Ubuntu 的目标在于为一般用户提供一个最新的、同时又相当稳定的主要由自由软件构建而成的操作系统。Ubuntu 具有庞大的社区力量,用户可以方便地从社区获得帮助。随着云计算的流行,ubuntu 推出了一个云计算环境搭建的解决方案,可以在其官方网站找到相关信息。于 2012 年 4 月 26 日发布最终版 ubuntu 12.04,ubuntu 12.04 是长期支持的版本。

Ubuntu is a Linux operating system based on desktop applications. Its name comes from the word “Ubuntu” in Zulu or Hausa language in southern Africa, which means “human nature” and “I exist because of everyone”. It is a traditional African value, similar to the “benevolence” thought of Chinese society. Ubuntu is based on the Debian distribution and unity desktop environment. Unlike Debian, it releases a new version every six months. The goal of Ubuntu is to provide the general user with an up-to-date and relatively stable operating system built mainly from free software. Ubuntu has a huge community power, users can easily get help from the community. With the popularity of cloud computing, Ubuntu has launched a solution to build a cloud computing environment, which can be found on its official website. The final version of Ubuntu 12.04 was released on April 26, 2012, which is a long-term supported version.

Red Hat Linux

Red Hat Linux

可能这是最著名的 Linux 版本了,Red Hat Linux 已经创造了自己的品牌,越来越多的人听说过它。Red Hat 在 1994 年创业,当时聘用了全世界 500 多名员工,他们都致力于开放的源代码体系。

Perhaps the most famous version of Linux, Red Hat Linux has created its own brand, and more and more people have heard of it. Red hat started in 1994, employing more than 500 employees around the world, all of whom are committed to an open source system.

Red Hat Linux 是公共环境中表现上佳的服务器。它拥有自己的公司,能向用户提供一套完整的服务,这使得它特别适合在公共网络中使用。这个版本的 Linux 也使用最新的内核,还拥有大多数人都需要使用的主体软件包。

Red Hat Linux is the best server in the public environment. It has its own company and can provide users with a complete set of services, which makes it particularly suitable for use in public networks. This version of Linux also uses the latest kernel and has the main package that most people need to use.

Red Hat Linux 的安装过程也十分简单明了。它的图形安装过程提供简易设置服务器的全部信息。磁盘分区过程可以自动完成,还可以选择 GUI 工具完成,即使对于 Linux 新手来说这些都非常简单。选择软件包的过程也与其他版本类似;用户可以选择软件包种类或特殊的软件包。系统运行起来后,用户可以从 Web 站点和 Red Hat 那里得到充分的技术支持。我发现 Red Hat 是一个符合大众需求的最优版本。在服务器和桌面系统中它都工作得很好。Red Hat 的唯一缺陷是带有一些不标准的内核补丁,这使得它难于按用户的需求进行定制。 Red Hat 通过论坛和邮件列表提供广泛的技术支持,它还有自己公司的电话技术支持,后者对要求更高技术支持水平的集团客户更有吸引力。

The installation of Red Hat Linux is also straightforward. Its graphic installation process provides all the information for setting up the server easily. The partition process can be done automatically, and GUI tools can be selected to complete it, which is very simple for Linux novices. The process of selecting software package is similar to other versions; users can choose the type of package or special package. After the system runs, users can get full technical support from the web site and red hat. I found red hat to be the best version for the public. It works well on both servers and desktop systems. The only drawback of red hat is that it comes with some nonstandard kernel patches, which makes it difficult to customize it to user needs. Red hat provides a wide range of technical support through forums and mailing lists, as well as its own company’s telephone technical support, which is more attractive to group customers demanding higher levels of technical support.

SuSE

SuSE

总部设在德国的 SuSE AG 在商界已经奋斗了 8 年多,它一直致力于创建一个连接数据库的最佳 Linux 版本。为了实现这一目的,SuSE 与 Oracle 和 IBM 合作,以使他们的产品能稳定地工作。SuSE 还开发了 SuSE Linux eMail Server III,一个非常稳定的电子邮件群组应用。

SUSE AG, based in Germany, has been in the business world for more than eight years and has been working to create the best version of Linux to connect to the database. To achieve this, SUSE works with Oracle and IBM to make their products work steadily. SUSE also developed SUSE Linux email server III, a very stable e-mail group application.

基于 2.4.10 内核的 SuSE 7.3,在原有版本的基础上提高了易用性。安装过程通过 GUI 完成,磁盘分区过程也非常简单,但它没有为用户提供更多的控制和选择。

SUSE 7.3 based on 2.4.10 kernel improves the usability of the original version. The installation process is completed through GUI, and the disk partition process is very simple, but it does not provide users with more control and choice.

在 SuSE 操作系统下,可以非常方便地访问 Windows 磁盘,这使得两种平台之间的切换,以及使用双系统启动变得更容易。SuSE 的硬件检测非常优秀,该版本在服务器和工作站上都用得很好。

Under SUSE operating system, Windows disk can be easily accessed, which makes it easier to switch between the two platforms and use dual system startup. SUSE’s hardware testing is excellent, and this version works well on both servers and workstations.

SuSE 拥有界面友好的安装过程,还有图形管理工具,可方便地访问 Windows 磁盘,对于终端用户和管理员来说使用它同样方便,这使它成为了一个强大的服务器平台。 SuSE 也通过基于 Web 的论坛提供技术支持,另外我还发现它有电话技术支持。

SUSE has a user-friendly installation process, as well as graphical management tools. It can easily access windows disk. It is also convenient for end users and administrators to use it, which makes it a powerful server platform. SUSE also provides technical support through web-based forums, and I’ve also found that it has telephone support.

Linux Mint

Linux Mint

Linux Mint 是一份基于 Ubuntu 的发行版,其目标是提供一种更完整的即刻可用体验,这包括提供浏

Linux Mint is a distribution based on Ubuntu, and its goal is to provide a more complete, immediately available experience, including browsing


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