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【速搜问答】GNU操作系统是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-09-02) 425次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

GNU操作系统是一种由自由软件构成的类 Unix 操作系统,该系统基于 Linux 内核,目标在于建立一个完全相容于UNIX的自由软件环境。

GNU operating system is a kind of UNIX like operating system composed of free software. The system is based on Linux kernel and aims to establish a free software environment compatible with UNIX.

GNU 操作系统是一种由自由软件构成的类 Unix 操作系统,该系统基于 Linux 内核,目标在于建立一个完全相容于 UNIX 的自由软件环境。

GNU operating system is a kind of UNIX like operating system composed of free software. The system is based on Linux kernel and aims to establish a free software environment compatible with UNIX.

简介

brief introduction

GNU 操作系统的第一个完整的测试版是在 1996 年,这个版本包括 GNU HURD。在 20 世纪 90 年代,GNU 操作系统使用 Linux 作为内核,而不是 GNU HURD 的一个分支,这已经取得了巨大成功,同时表明,作为 GNU 系统不是一套静态的方案,用户和经销商可以根据自己的需要选择不同的包使用该系统,结果属于 GNU 系统中的一种。

The first full beta version of the GNU operating system was in 1996, which included GNU Hurd. In the 1990s, GNU operating system used linux as the kernel instead of a branch of GNU Hurd, which has achieved great success. At the same time, it shows that GNU system is not a static solution. Users and dealers can choose different packages to use the system according to their own needs. The result belongs to one of GNU systems.

GNU 操作系统中的安装的每个软件都是自由软件,其中部分符合 copyleft。

Every software installed in GNU operating system is free software, and some of them conform to copyleft.

发展过程

developing process

1983 年,Richard Stallman(RMS)推出 GNU,作为一个操作系统,GNU 可以将一起工作的所有用户联系起来,同时每个用户都可以自由地控制自己的计算机。

In 1983, Richard Stallman (RMS) introduced GNU. As an operating system, GNU can connect all users working together, and each user can freely control his own computer.

GNU 工程创始于 1984 年,旨在开发一个完整 GNU 系统,GNU 这个名字是 “GNU’s Not Unix!” 的递归首字母缩写词,”GNU” 的发音为 g’noo,只有一个音节,发音很像 “grew”,但需要把其中的 r 音替换为 n 音,系统的名称,GNU 是一个递归的缩写,意为 GNU 不是 Unix 的一种致敬 Unix 的技术思路,而在同一时间说 GNU 是不同的东西。

The GNU Project was founded in 1984 to develop a complete GNU system. The name of GNU is the recursive acronym of “GNU’s not UNIX!”. The pronunciation of “GNU” is g’noo with only one syllable, which is very similar to “grey”. However, the R sound needs to be replaced with n. the name of the system, GNU is a recursive abbreviation, meaning that GNU is not UNIX It’s a technical way to pay homage to UNIX, while saying GNU at the same time is different.

GNU 自己的内核 Hurd 仍在开发中,离实用还有一定的距离。因此,GNU 通常使用 Linux 内核。这样的组合即为 GNU/Linux 操作系统,已经有上百万人在使用 GNU/Linux,但他们中的很多人把它误称为“Linux”。

Hurd, the GNU’s own kernel, is still under development, which is far from practical. Therefore, GNU usually uses the Linux kernel. This combination is the GNU / Linux operating system, which has been used by millions of people, but many of them mistakenly call it “Linux”.

当 Linus Torvalds 写成了 Linux,他填补了一个重要的空白,可以将 Linux 和 GNU 系统组成一个完整的自由系统:基于 Linux 的 GNU 系统(或简称为 GNU/Linux 系统)。把它们组合到一起听起来很容易,但是这并不是一个简单的工作。 GNU C 库 (简称 glibc) 需要作大量的修改。集成到一个完整的发行系统中也是一项很大的工作。它需要对如何安装和启动系统进行定位 — 这个问题直到现在还在完善,因为我们还没有抓住要点。那些开发了不同的发行系统的人们作出了巨大贡献。

When Linus Torvalds wrote Linux, he filled an important gap. He could make Linux and GNU system into a complete free system: GNU system based on Linux (or GNU / Linux system for short). It sounds easy to put them together, but it’s not an easy job. The GNU C library (glibc) needs a lot of modification. Integration into a complete distribution system is also a big job. It needs to position how to install and start the system – a question that has been refined until now because we haven’t grasped the point. People who have developed different distribution systems have contributed enormously.


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