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【速搜问答】磁盘碎片整理是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-08-28) 479次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

磁盘碎片整理是通过系统软件或者专业的磁盘碎片整理软件对电脑磁盘在长期使用过程中产生的碎片和凌乱文件重新整理,可提高电脑的整体性能和运行速度。

Disk defragmentation is a kind of system software or professional disk defragmentation software to rearrange the fragments and messy files produced in the long-term use of computer disks, which can improve the overall performance and running speed of the computer.

磁盘碎片应该称为文件碎片,是因为文件被分散保存到整个磁盘的不同地方,而不是连续地保存在磁盘连续的簇中形成的。文件碎片一般不会在系统中引起问题,但文件碎片过多会使系统在读文件的时候来回寻找,引起系统性能下降,严重的还要缩短硬盘寿命。

Disk fragmentation should be called file fragmentation because the files are scattered to different places on the whole disk, rather than continuously stored in continuous clusters of disks. Generally, file fragmentation will not cause problems in the system, but too many file fragments will make the system search back and forth when reading files, resulting in system performance degradation, and seriously shorten the life of hard disk.

磁盘碎片整理,就是通过系统软件或者专业的磁盘碎片整理软件对电脑磁盘在长期使用过程中产生的碎片和凌乱文件重新整理,可提高电脑的整体性能和运行速度。

Disk defragmentation is to rearrange the fragments and messy files generated by the long-term use of computer disks through system software or professional disk defragmentation software, which can improve the overall performance and running speed of the computer.

内容简介

content validity

硬盘在使用一段时间后,由于反复写入和删除文件,磁盘中的空闲扇区会分散到整个磁盘中不连续的物理位置上,从而使文件不能存在连续的扇区里。这样,再读写文件时就需要到不同的地方去读取,增加了磁头的来回移动,降低了磁盘的访问速度。

After the hard disk is used for a period of time, due to repeatedly writing and deleting files, the free sectors in the disk will be scattered to the discontinuous physical positions in the whole disk, so that the files can not exist in the continuous sectors. In this way, when reading and writing files, you need to read from different places, which increases the back and forth movement of the magnetic head, and reduces the access speed of the disk.

一般家庭用户 1 个月整理一次,商业用户以及服务器半个月整理一次。但要根据碎片比例来考虑,如在 windows7 中,碎片超过 10%,则需整理,否则不必,如 果频繁的对磁盘进行整理反而有损硬盘的寿命。

General household users organize once a month, commercial users and servers once a half a month. However, it should be considered according to the proportion of fragments. For example, in Windows 7, if the fragmentation is more than 10%, it needs to be cleaned up. Otherwise, it is unnecessary. If the disk is tidied frequently, it will damage the life of the hard disk.

碎片产生原因

Causes of debris

主要原因

main cause

当应用程序所需的物理内存不足时,一般操作系统会在硬盘中产生

When the physical memory required by the application is insufficient, the general operating system will generate in the hard disk

临时交换文件,用该文件所占用的硬盘空间虚拟成内存。虚拟内存管理程序会对硬盘频繁读写,产生大量的碎片,这是产生硬盘碎片的主要原因。

Temporary exchange file, use the hard disk space occupied by the file to virtual memory. Virtual memory manager will read and write hard disk frequently and produce a large number of fragments, which is the main reason of hard disk fragmentation.

其他原因

Other reasons

其他如 IE 浏览器浏览信息时生成的临时文件或临时文件目录的设置也会造成系统中形成大量的碎片。文件碎片一般不会在系统中引起问题,但文件碎片过多会使系统在读文件的时候来回寻找,引起硬盘性能下降,严重的还要缩短硬盘寿命。

For example, the setting of temporary file or temporary file directory generated when browsing information by IE browser will also cause a large number of fragments in the system. Generally, file fragments will not cause problems in the system, but too many file fragments will make the system search back and forth when reading files, resulting in the performance degradation of hard disk, and even shorten the life of hard disk seriously.

整理方式

Arrangement method

系统自带

The system comes with

常见的有 Windows XP 碎片整理,Windows Vista 碎片整理,Windows 7 碎片整理,如图。

The common ones are Windows XP defragmentation, Windows Vista defragmentation and windows 7 defragmentation, as shown in the figure.

磁盘碎片整理的进入方式:

How to enter disk defragmentation:

桌面右键点击“我的电脑”,左键单击“管理”,在出现的对话框里的左边左键单击“磁盘碎片整理程序”,然后在右边选择你要整理的磁盘。

Right click “my computer”, left click “manage”, left click “disk defragmenter” on the left of the dialog box, and then select the disk you want to defragment on the right.

准备工作

preparation

当磁盘碎片整理程序在对磁盘进行碎片整理时,计算机可以执行其他任务,但此时计算机将运行得较慢,磁盘碎片整理程序也要花费更长的时间。在碎片整理过程中,每当其他程序写磁盘后磁盘碎片整理程序必须重新启动。为避免磁盘碎片整理程序重新启动太频繁,一定要在整理磁盘碎片时关闭其他程序。

When the disk defragmenter is defragmenting the disk, the computer can perform other tasks, but the computer will run slower and the disk defragmenter will take longer. During defragmentation, the disk defragmenter must be restarted whenever other programs write to the disk. To prevent disk defragmenter from restarting too often, be sure to close other programs while defragmenting the disk.

在整理磁盘碎片前应该先对驱动器进行“磁盘错误扫描”。这样可以防止系统将某些文件误认作逻辑错误而造成文件丢失。具体操作是(以 Windows XP 为例):在“我的电脑”中选择要整理的驱动器,单击鼠标右键,在弹出的菜单中选择“属性”,进入“工具”选项卡,点击“查错”栏中的“开始查错”按钮,然后按提示操作即可。

Before defragmenting a disk, you should perform a disk error scan on the drive. This can prevent the system from mistaking some files as logical errors and causing file loss. The specific operation is (take Windows XP as an example): select the drive to be sorted out in “my computer”, right-click, select “properties” in the pop-up menu, enter the “tools” tab, click the “start error checking” button in the “error checking” column, and then follow the prompts.

推荐设置

Recommended settings

优化方面的设置

Settings for optimization

部分软件提供优化设置。用户可以选择快速优化、完全优化。通常家庭用户可以选择快速优化,每半年一次完全优化最好,优化指的是将频繁使用的文件移到驱动器的高性能区,加快读取速度。

Some software provides optimization settings. Users can choose fast optimization and complete optimization. In general, home users can choose fast optimization, and it is best to complete optimization once every half a year. Optimization refers to moving frequently used files to the high-performance area of the drive to speed up the reading speed.

文件间隙设置

File gap setting

部分软件提供了设置是否保留文件间隙的设置。建议不要保留,如果保留文件间隙则很快就会产生大量碎片。

Some software provides the setting of whether to keep the file gap. It is recommended that you do not keep a large number of files if you keep a lot of them.

将目录靠近 MFT

Close the directory to the MFT

部分软件提供此类设置,如果将移动目录 靠近主文件分配表则会大大加快文件读取速度。

Some software provides such settings. If the mobile directory is close to the main file allocation table, the file reading speed will be greatly accelerated.

相关常识

Common sense

磁盘碎片会降低系统的整体性能

Disk fragmentation can reduce the overall performance of the system

如果文件存储在不同的碎片上,那么打开文件时,计算机必须搜索硬盘,以便将碎片重新拼凑在一起。响应时间可能明显变长。

If the file is stored on different fragments, when you open the file, the computer must search the hard disk to reassemble the fragments. The response time may be significantly longer.

磁盘碎片整理程序是一个 Windows 实用工具,用于合并计算机硬盘上存储在不同碎片上的文件和文件夹,从而使这些文件和文件夹中的任意一个都只占据磁盘上的一块空间。将文件首尾相接整齐存储而没有碎片时,磁盘读写速度将加快。

Disk defragmenter is a Windows utility that merges files and folders stored on different fragments on a computer’s hard disk, so that any one of these files and folders occupies only one space on the disk. When the files are stored neatly from end to end without fragmentation, the disk reading and writing speed will be accelerated.

除定期(最好每月一次)运行磁盘碎片整理程序外,在通常每月一次的惯例之外,如果发生了某些特定的事件也可以运行该实用工具。

In addition to running disk defragmenter on a regular (preferably monthly) basis, the utility can also be run if certain specific events occur, in addition to the usual monthly practice.

在以下情况下,应该运行磁盘碎片整理程序:

You should run disk defragmenter if:

增加了大量文件。

A large number of documents have been added.

只有 15% 左右的可用磁盘空间。

Only about 15% of the available disk space.

安装了新程序或 Windows 的新版本

A new program or a new version of windows is installed

Linux 的文件系统

File system of Linux

此处是在此范畴下对 Linux 文件系统有针对性的简单介绍,更多内容详见 Ext2。

Here is a brief introduction to Linux file system in this category. For more details, please refer to ext2.

Linux 的文件系统可大致分为两块,inode 区域和 block 区域,分别存着称为 inode 和 block 的不同的块。

Linux’s file system can be roughly divided into two parts, inode area and block area. There are different blocks called inode and block respectively.

inode 中存着很多条记录,每条记录用于存放文件除实际内容之外的所有信息,包括权限、修改日期、名称等,一个文件的实际内容可能散落于 block 区域的不同位置,这些位置的信息也全部记录在 inode 的一条记录里。

There are many records in inode. Each record is used to store all information except the actual content of the file, including permission, modification date, name, etc. the actual content of a file may be scattered in different locations in the block area, and the information of these locations is also recorded in one record of inode.

block 区域中是一个个大小固定的块,负责存文件的实际内容。

Block area is a fixed size block, responsible for storing the actual content of the file.

二者的关系是,inode 相当于索引,block 中是实际内容。

The relationship between the two is that inode is equivalent to index, and block is the actual content.

Linux 与 Windows 对比

Comparison between Linux and windows

假设要读取一个文件,

Suppose you want to read a file,

Linux 的处理方式是:

The processing method of Linux is as follows:

1.在 inode 区域中找到对应文件

1. Find the corresponding file in inode area

2.得出文件所在的不同的 block

2. Get the different block of the file

3.设计出最佳路径在硬盘上得到(读出)这些 block。

3. Design the best path to get (read) these blocks on the hard disk.

Windows 的处理方式是:

The windows processing method is as follows:

1.在分配表中找到对应文件,读取第一个簇。

1. Find the corresponding file in the allocation table and read the first cluster.

2.根据记录的下一个簇的位置,移动到下一个位置并读取。

2. According to the location of the next cluster recorded, move to the next location and read.

3,重复第二步直到读完文件。

3. Repeat the second step until you finish reading the document.

这样区别在于,如果文件在磁盘上比较零散,Windows 需要绕更多圈寻找,而 Linux 可以制定读取顺序,一次全部读出。所以,对于 Windows,文件摆放的集中有利于提高读取效率,这就是 Windows 需要磁盘碎片整理的原因。

The difference is that if the files are scattered on the disk, windows needs to look around more circles, while Linux can set the reading order and read them all at once. Therefore, for windows, the centralized placement of files is conducive to improving the reading efficiency, which is why windows needs disk defragmentation.


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