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【速搜问答】OLED显示屏是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-08-19) 680次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

OLED显示屏是利用有机电自发光二极管制成的显示屏。具备自发光有机电激发光二极管,不需背光源、对比度高、厚度薄、视角广、反应速度快、可用于挠曲性面板、使用温度范围广、构造及制程较简单等优异之特性,被认为是下一代的平面显示器新兴应用技术。

OLED display screen is made of electromechanical self led. Self luminous organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are considered to be the new application technology of the next generation of flat panel displays due to their excellent characteristics such as no backlight, high contrast, thin thickness, wide viewing angle, fast reaction speed, flexible panel, wide temperature range, simple structure and process.

OLED 显示屏是利用有机电自发光二极管制成的显示屏。由于同时具备自发光有机电激发光二极管,不需背光源、对比度高、厚度薄、视角广、反应速度快、可用于挠曲性面板、使用温度范围广、构造及制程较简单等优异之特性,被认为是下一代的平面显示器新兴应用技术。

OLED display screen is made of electromechanical self led. Due to the advantages of self luminous organic light-emitting diodes, such as no backlight, high contrast, thin thickness, wide viewing angle, fast response speed, flexible panel, wide temperature range, simple structure and process, it is considered as the new application technology of next generation flat panel display.

中国 OLED 产业前景非常广阔,业内企业也正在努力积累发展经验,但国内产业链上游环节薄弱,行业的配套能力欠缺等因素为广大厂商制造了比较大的发展障碍。

The prospect of China’s OLED industry is very broad, and enterprises in the industry are also trying to accumulate development experience. However, the weak upstream links of domestic industrial chain and the lack of supporting capacity of the industry have created relatively large obstacles for the development of the majority of manufacturers.

2020 年 7 月 29 日 ,据韩国媒体报道,三星 Display 将于 2021 年开始量产 QD-OLED 面板。

On July 29, 2020, according to Korean media reports, Samsung display will begin mass production of qd-oled panels in 2021.

介绍

introduce

生产企业

manufacturing enterprise

amoled 显示屏多用在手机等小屏显示上,尤以三星可以量产,但产能仍较低。pmoled 以索尼和三菱电机为龙头,技术最成熟,国内以维信诺(Visionox)显示为代表。

AMOLED displays are mostly used in small screen displays such as mobile phones. Samsung can mass produce them, but the production capacity is still low. PMOLED is led by Sony and Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd., and its technology is the most mature, represented by visionox in China.

简介

brief introduction

对于有机电激发光器件,我们可按发光材料将其分为两种: 小分子 OLED 和高分子 OLED(也可称为 PLED)。它们的差异主要表现在器件的制备工艺不同:小分子器件主要采用真空热蒸发工艺,高分子器件则采用旋转涂覆或喷墨工艺。

For organic light-emitting devices, we can divide them into two types according to their luminescent materials: small molecular OLED and polymer OLED (also known as PLED). The difference between them is mainly reflected in the different preparation processes of the devices: small molecular devices mainly use vacuum thermal evaporation process, while polymer devices use rotary coating or ink-jet process.

产能情况

Capacity

OLED 显示屏产能情况

OLED display capacity

生产分布

Production distribution

中国内地企业主要从事小尺寸 OLED 生产,大尺寸 OLED 生产方面还不成熟。小尺寸 OLED 生产方面的主要公司有昆山维信诺、汕尾信利、四川虹视、佛山彩虹等。

Chinese mainland enterprises are mainly engaged in small-scale OLED production, but large-scale OLED production is not mature. Small size OLED production companies are Kunshan weixinnuo, Shanwei Xinli, Sichuan Hongshi, Foshan rainbow, etc.

行业数据

Industry data

国内:2010 年维信诺中国大陆市场占有率达到 40%,并已经成为世界主要的 PMOLED 供应商之一,产品远销欧美、日韩及中国台湾等地。维信诺 OLED 主要有北京、昆山两条生产线,北京中试线 PMOLED 可实现小批量的生产;昆山 PMOLED 可实现每年 1000 万~1200 万支左右的大规模量产(2010 年销售额达 1.7 亿元)。2011 年,维信诺公司的 OLED 产品出货量已位居全球第二位。

China: in 2010, the market share of China’s mainland was 40%, and has become one of the world’s leading PMOLED suppliers. Its products are exported to Europe, America, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, China. Vicino OLED mainly has two production lines in Beijing and Kunshan. PMOLED of Beijing pilot line can realize small batch production; Kunshan PMOLED can achieve large-scale mass production of about 10-12 million pieces per year (the sales volume in 2010 reached 170 million yuan). In 2011, vicino’s OLED product shipment has ranked the second in the world.

国外:据 OLED-Info 报道,LG 现在仍在发展其 0.97 毫米轻薄 OLED 电视,以使其更耐用并解决其缆线问题。目前,LG 使用外置盒用于所有的连接,该公司考虑在未来的 OLED 电视中也采用这样的设计,这样可以使显示器尽可能地轻薄。目前,LG 计划在 2016 年年底发布一个 0.97 毫米的 OLED 电视。对于更近期的计划,LG2016 年 OLED 电视的阵容基本上已经确定了。LG 将集中发展 4K、HDR 和广色域。显示屏的亮度将在 2016 年得到提高,LG 的目标是把下一代 OLED 电视的亮度提高一倍。LG 还承诺会在 2016 年国际消费电子展展示“大惊喜”,但没有透露细节。

Abroad: according to OLED info, LG is still developing its 0.97mm slim OLED TV to make it more durable and solve its cable problem. Currently, LG uses an external box for all connections, and the company is considering using this design in future OLED TVs to make the display as light and thin as possible. Currently, LG plans to launch a 0.97mm OLED TV by the end of 2016. For more recent plans, the lineup of lg2016 OLED TV has basically been determined. LG will focus on 4K, HDR and wide color gamut. The brightness of the display will be improved in 2016, and LG aims to double the brightness of the next generation of OLED TVs. LG also promised to show “big surprise” at the 2016 International Consumer Electronics Show, but did not disclose details.

技术功能

Technical function

有机发光二极管 (OLED)显示器越来越普遍,在手机、媒体播放器及小型入门级电视等产品中最为显著。不同于标准的液晶显示器,OLED 像素是由电流源所驱动。若要了解 OLED 电源供应如何及为何会影响显示器画质,必须先了解 OLED 显示器技术及电源供应需求。本文将说明最新的 OLED 显示器技术,并探讨主要的电源供应需求及解决方案,另外也介绍专为 OLED 电源供应需求而提出的创新性电源供应架构。

Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays are becoming more and more popular, especially in mobile phones, media players and small entry-level TVs. Unlike standard LCD displays, OLED pixels are driven by a current source. To understand how and why OLED power supply affects display quality, you must first understand OLED display technology and power supply requirements. This article describes the latest OLED display technology, discusses the main power supply requirements and solutions, and introduces the innovative power supply architecture for OLED power supply requirements.

背板技术造就软性显示器  高分辨率彩色主动式矩阵有机发光二极管 (AMOLED) 显示器需要采用主动式矩阵背板,此背板使用主动式开关进行各像素的开关。液晶 (LC) 显示器非晶硅制程已臻成熟,可供应低成本的主动式矩阵背板,并且可用于 OLED。许多公司正针对软性显示器开发有机薄膜晶体管 (OTFT) 背板制程,此一制程也可用于 OLED 显示器,以实现全彩软性显示器的推出。不论是标准或软性 OLED,都需要运用相同的电源供应及驱动技术。若要了解 OLED 技术、功能及其与电源供应之间的互动,必须深入剖析这项技术本身。OLED 显示器是一种自体发光显示器技术,完全不需要任何背光。OLED 采用的材质属于化学结构适用的有机材质。  OLED 技术需要电流控制驱动方法  OLED 具有与标准发光二极管 (LED) 相当类似的电气特性,亮度均取决于 LED 电流。若要开启和关闭 OLED 并控制 OLED 电流,需要使用薄膜晶体管 (TFT)的控制电路。

Backplane technology makes flexible display. High resolution color active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display needs active matrix backplane, which uses active switch to switch pixels. The amorphous silicon process of liquid crystal (LC) display is mature, which can supply low-cost active matrix backplane and can be used in OLED. Many companies are developing organic thin film transistor (OTFT) backplane processes for soft displays, which can also be used for OLED displays to achieve full-color soft displays. Both standard and soft OLEDs require the same power supply and drive technology. In order to understand the technology, function and interaction between OLED and power supply, the technology itself must be deeply analyzed. OLED display is a kind of self luminous display technology, which does not need any backlight at all. The material used in OLED belongs to the organic material with suitable chemical structure. OLED technology needs current control drive method. OLED has electrical characteristics similar to standard light-emitting diode (LED), and the brightness depends on LED current. To turn on and off the OLED and control the OLED current, the control circuit of thin film transistor (TFT) is needed.

进阶节能模式可达到最高效率和任何电池供电的设备一样,只有在转换器以整体负载电流范围的最高效率进行运作时,才能达到较长的电池待机时间,这对于 OLED 显示器尤其重要。OLED 显示器呈现全白时会耗用最大的电源,对于其它任何显示色彩则电流相对较小,这是因为只有白色需要所有红、绿、蓝子像素都全亮。举例来说,2.7 吋显示器需要 80mA 电流来呈现全白影像,但只需要 5mA 电流显示其它图标或图形。因此,OLED 电源供应需要针对所有负载电流达到高转换器效率。为了达到如此的效率,需要运用进阶的节能模式技术来减少负载电流,以降低转换器切换频率。由于这是透过电压控制震荡器 (VCO) 完成,因此能够将可能的 EMI 问题降至最低,并且能够将最低切换频率控制在一般 40kHz 的音讯范围以外,这可避免陶瓷输入或输出电容产生噪音。在手机应用中使用这类装置时,这特别重要,而且可简化设计流程。

As with any battery powered device, longer battery standby time can be achieved only when the converter is operating at the highest efficiency of the overall load current range, which is particularly important for OLED displays. OLED displays consume the most power when they are all white, and the current is relatively small for any other display color, because only white requires all red, green, and blue subpixels to be fully bright. For example, a 2.7-inch monitor requires 80 Ma for all white images, but only 5 mA for other icons or graphics. Therefore, OLED power supply needs to achieve high converter efficiency for all load currents. In order to achieve such efficiency, it is necessary to use advanced energy-saving mode technology to reduce the load current and reduce the switching frequency of the converter. Since this is done through a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), possible EMI problems can be minimized, and the minimum switching frequency can be controlled beyond the normal 40KHz audio range, which can avoid noise generated by ceramic input or output capacitors. This is particularly important when using such devices in mobile applications and simplifies the design process.

按发光特性来说白光不是耗电最大,是以亮度值来决定耗电量的。如红,蓝,绿亮度值是 10 的一起亮时会产生 30 亮度值的白光。因此将红,蓝,绿亮度值调成 3.3 合成一个 10 的白光值(理论值)。从 LED 或 OLED 来说人眼看到同样的亮度,蓝光耗电最大。

According to the light-emitting characteristics, white light does not consume the most power, but the brightness value determines the power consumption. For example, red, blue, green brightness value is 10, together will produce 30 brightness value of white light. Therefore, adjust the red, blue and green brightness values to 3.3 to synthesize a white light value of 10 (theoretical value). From the LED or OLED, the human eye sees the same brightness, blue light consumes the most power.

发光原理

Principle of luminescence

有机发光显示技术由非常薄的有机材料涂层和玻璃基板构成。当有电荷通过时这些有机材料就会发光。OLED 发光的颜色取决于有机发光层的材料,故厂商可由改变发光层的材料而得到所需之颜色。有源阵列有机发光显示屏具有内置的电子电路系统因此每个像素都由一个对应的电路独立驱动。OLED 具备有构造简单、自发光不需背光源、对比度高、厚度薄、视角广、反应速度快、可用于挠曲性面板、使用温度范围广等优点,技术提供了浏览照片和视频的最佳方式而且对相机的设计造成的限制较少。

Organic light emitting display technology consists of very thin organic material coating and glass substrate. These organic materials emit light when an electric charge passes through them. The color of OLED depends on the material of the organic light-emitting layer, so manufacturers can obtain the required color by changing the material of the light-emitting layer. Active array OLED display has built-in electronic circuit system, so each pixel is driven by a corresponding circuit independently. OLED has the advantages of simple structure, self illumination, no backlight, high contrast, thin thickness, wide viewing angle, fast response speed, can be used in flexible panel, wide temperature range and other advantages. The technology provides the best way to browse photos and videos, and has less restrictions on camera design.

车载显示

On board display

汽车信息系统的复杂性和信息密度在日益上升,这使得汽车内部显示器不再仅仅是基本的集中仪表显示,而是要满足越来越详细和多样化的车内信息显示需求。车载显示器市场按应用分为车载导航装置、车载电视,以及车载信息系统;按装配时间分为原装和后装两个市场。原装市场需要经过严格的认证,进入较难;后配市场则不需认证,是目前最大的市场,约是原装市场的 20 倍。未来随着汽车导航系统等成为汽车标配,新车配备显示器的比例即原装市场的比例会逐步提升。

The complexity and information density of automobile information system are increasing day by day, which makes the interior display of automobile not only a basic centralized instrument display, but also meet the more and more detailed and diversified information display requirements in the car. The on-board display market is divided into vehicle navigation device, on-board television and on-board information system according to the application; it is divided into original and rear mounted markets according to the assembly time. The original market needs strict certification, which is difficult to enter; the aftermarket does not need certification, which is the largest market at present, about 20 times of the original market. In the future, as the car navigation system becomes a standard configuration, the proportion of new cars equipped with displays, that is, the proportion of original market will gradually increase.

汽车电子需要的显示产品,对于环境适应性要求高,普遍需求的车载显示屏的性能指标为:亮度 20~60nit,常温工作寿命 50000 小时,耐受温度范围-40~85℃。在北美汽车显示市场,VFD(真空荧光显示器)长期以来很受欢迎,因为它们具有出色的亮度可以保证良好的可见度。但随着 OLED、LCD 液晶显示技术的兴起,VFD 正在逐渐丧失优势。因为 VFD 功耗大、全彩化和解析度受到极大限制。

The display products required by automotive electronics have high requirements for environmental adaptability. The performance indicators of the commonly required vehicle mounted display screen are: brightness 20 ~ 60nit, normal temperature working life of 50000 hours, and temperature tolerance range of – 40 ~ 85 ℃. In the North American automotive display market, VFDs (vacuum fluorescent displays) have long been popular because of their excellent brightness and good visibility. However, with the rise of OLED and LCD, VFD is gradually losing its advantages. Because of the high power consumption, full color and resolution of VFD are greatly limited.

LCD 液晶显示技术逐渐开始应用在车载显示领域,然而由于液晶显示技术受制于环境温度的影响,限制了车载显示产品的应用领域。制作液晶显示屏的液晶材料在环境温度过高时会变成液体,而温度过低时会冷却变成晶体,无论变成哪种状态,液晶材料都不再具有能受电场控制的光电效应,导致液晶显示屏不能正常工作,此外液晶显示的对比度、视角、响应速度也随温度的变化而变化,因此对环境变化大的车载显示而言,液晶不是好的显示方式。

LCD technology is gradually applied in the field of vehicle display. However, due to the influence of ambient temperature, the application field of LCD products is limited. When the ambient temperature is too high, the liquid crystal material will become liquid, and when the temperature is too low, the liquid crystal material will become crystal. No matter what kind of state it becomes, the liquid crystal material will no longer have the photoelectric effect which can be controlled by the electric field, resulting in the liquid crystal display not working normally. Besides, the contrast, viewing angle and response speed of liquid crystal display also change with the change of temperature LCD is not a good display mode for vehicle display with great environmental changes.

同成熟的 TFT-LCD 相比,OLED(有机电致发光显示技术)是主动发光的显示器,具有高对比度、宽视角(达 170?)、快速响应(~1μs)、高发光效率、低操作电压(3~10V)、超轻薄(厚度小于 2mm)等优势。利用 OLED 技术制作的车载显示器,可具有更轻薄迷人的外观、更优异的彩色显示画质、更宽广的观看范围和更大的设计灵活性,更重要的是 OLED 环境适应性要远远优越于液晶显示,可耐受的温度区间达到-40~85℃温度范围。并且 OLED 不含铅,不会对环境造成污染。因此 OLED 显示应用在车载领域具有极大的优势。

Compared with the mature TFT-LCD, OLED (organic electroluminescent display technology) is an active light-emitting display, which has the advantages of high contrast, wide viewing angle (up to 170?), fast response (~ 1 μ s), high luminous efficiency, low operating voltage (3-10v), ultra thin (thickness less than 2mm). The vehicle display made by OLED technology can have more light and charming appearance, better color display image quality, wider viewing range and greater design flexibility. What’s more, the environmental adaptability of OLED is far superior to that of LCD, and the temperature range that can be tolerated reaches – 40 ~ 85 ℃. And OLED does not contain lead and will not cause pollution to the environment. Therefore, OLED display has great advantages in the field of vehicle.

DisplaySearch 的调研报告显示,在 OLED 面板的各种应用中,2005 年度汽车音响应用市场占总出货量的 3[%],产值达 11[%],占据了高端应用市场的主要份额。实际上,福特的阿斯顿·马丁 DB9、大切诺基吉普车和雪佛兰 Corvette 等汽车已经采用了单色 OLED 小分子无源矩阵显示器,在亮度下降至原始亮度的 80[%]以前可以工作 30000 小时。

The Research Report of DisplaySearch shows that among the various applications of OLED panel, the automotive audio application market accounted for 3 [%] of the total shipment in 2005, and the output value reached 11 [%], occupying the main share of the high-end application market. In fact, Ford’s Aston Martin DB9, Grand Cherokee Jeep and Chevrolet Corvette have used monochromatic OLED small molecule passive matrix displays, which can work 30000 hours before the brightness drops to 80 [%] of the original brightness.

市场研究公司 ABI Research 认为,OLED 显示屏给汽车制造商带来了巨大的优势,他们不需要和过去一样在汽车上穿孔布线,就可以迅速安装汽车仪表盘照明系统,并且 OLED 技术能够给高端豪华汽车带来完美感觉,对于豪华汽车制造商和经销商来说,这意味着重大的节省,同时会让消费者更满意。 OLED 的寿命已经有了大幅度提高,常规环境下 40000~50000 小时的寿命已经和 TFT-LCD 的寿命水平相当。日本 PiONeer 是最早有 OLED 产品上市的厂商,早在 1997 年就将单色 OLED 应用在汽车音响上,2004 年更是首次推出

ABI research, a market research firm, believes that OLED displays give automotive manufacturers a huge advantage. They can quickly install automotive dashboard lighting systems without perforating wiring in the car as in the past Technology can bring a perfect feel to high-end luxury cars, which means significant savings for luxury car manufacturers and dealers, while making consumers more satisfied. The life span of OLED has been greatly improved. The life span of 40 000 ~ 50 000 hours in conventional environment is equivalent to that of TFT-LCD. Japanese pioneer is the first manufacturer of OLED products on the market. As early as 1997, it applied monochromatic OLED to car audio, and it was launched for the first time in 2004


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