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【速搜问答】磁盘文件系统是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-08-18) 461次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

磁盘文件系统是组织、存储和命名文件的结构,常用的有MS-DOS和Windows 3.x。所谓文件系统,它是操作系统中藉以组织、存储和命名文件的结构。

Disk file system is the structure of organizing, storing and naming files. MS-DOS and windows 3. X are commonly used. The so-called file system is the structure in the operating system to organize, store and name files.

磁盘文件系统是组织、存储和命名文件的结构,常用的有 MS-DOS 和 Windows 3.x。所谓文件系统,它是操作系统中藉以组织、存储和命名文件的结构。磁盘或分区和它所包括的文件系统的不同是很重要的,大部分应用程序都基于文件系统进行操作,在不同种文件系统上是不能工作的。

Disk file system is the structure of organizing, storing and naming files. MS-DOS and windows 3. X are commonly used. The so-called file system is the structure in the operating system to organize, store and name files. It is important that the disk or partition is different from the file system it contains. Most applications operate based on the file system and cannot work on different file systems.

文件系统大家族

File system family

常用的文件系统有很多,MS-DOS 和 Windows 3.x 使用 FAT16 文件系统,默认情况下 Windows 98 也使用 FAT16,Windows 98 和 Me 可以同时支持 FAT16、FAT32 两种文件系统,Windows NT 则支持 FAT16、NTFS 两种文件系统,Windows 2000 可以支持 FAT16、FAT32、NTFS 三种文件系统,Linux 则可以支持多种文件系统,如 FAT16、FAT32、NTFS、Minix、ext、ext2、xiafs、HPFS、VFAT 等,不过 Linux 一般都使用 ext2 文件系统。下面,笔者就简要介绍这些文件系统的有关情况:

There are many common file systems. MS-DOS and windows 3. X use FAT16 file system. By default, Windows 98 also uses FAT16. Windows 98 and me can support FAT16 and FAT32 at the same time. Windows NT supports FAT16 and NTFS. Windows 2000 can support FAT16, FAT32 and NTFS file systems, and Linux It can support a variety of file systems, such as FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, MINIX, ext, ext2, xiafs, HPFS, VFAT, etc., but Linux generally uses EXT2 file system. The following is a brief introduction of these file systems

(1)FAT16

(1)FAT16

FAT 的全称是“File Allocation Table(文件分配表系统)”,最早于 1982 年开始应用于 MS-DOS 中。FAT 文件系统主要的优点就是它可以允许多种操作系统访问,如 MS-DOS、Windows 3.x、Windows 9x、Windows NT 和 OS/2 等。这一文件系统在使用时遵循 8.3 命名规则(即文件名最多为 8 个字符,扩展名为 3 个字符)。

Fat’s full name is “file allocation table”. It was first used in MS-DOS in 1982. The main advantage of fat file system is that it can allow multiple operating systems to access, such as MS-DOS, windows 3. X, Windows 9x, Windows NT and OS / 2. This file system follows the 8.3 naming rules when it is used (that is, the file name is up to 8 characters, and the extension name is 3 characters).

磁盘文件系统

Disk file system

文件系统就是在硬盘上存储信息的格式。在所有的计算机系统中,都存在一个相应的文件系统,它规定了计算机对文件和文件夹进行操作处理的各种标准和机制。因此,用户对所有的文件和文件夹的操作都是通过文件系统来完成的。其中 Windows 2000 支持的文件系统包括:

File system is the format of storing information on the hard disk. In all computer systems, there is a corresponding file system, which provides various standards and mechanisms for the computer to operate and process files and folders. Therefore, the user’s operations on all files and folders are completed through the file system. The file systems supported by Windows 2000 include:

o 标准文件分配表( FAT ),运行 Windows NT、Windows 95、MS – DOS 或 OS/2 可以存取主分区或者逻辑分区 FAT 上的文件。

O standard file allocation table (fat), running Windows NT, Windows 95, MS – DOS or OS / 2, can access files on the fat of primary or logical partitions.

o 增强的文件分配表(FAT32),这是在大型磁盘驱动器(超过 512 兆字节)上存储文件的极有效的系统,如果用户的驱动器使用了这种格式,则会在驱动器上创建多至几百兆的额外硬盘空间,从而更高效地存储数据。此外,可使程序运行加快 50 %,而使用的计算机系统资源却更少。

O enhanced file allocation table (FAT32), an extremely efficient system for storing files on large disk drives (over 512 megabytes), which creates up to hundreds of megabytes of additional hard disk space on the drive to store data more efficiently if the user’s drive uses this format. In addition, it can make the program run 50% faster and use less computer system resources.

o Windows 2000 中推荐的文件系统(NTFS),只有运行 Windows 2000 或 Windows NT 的计算机才可以存取 NTFS 卷中的文件。

O file system (NTFS) recommended in Windows 2000. Only computers running Windows 2000 or windows nt can access files in NTFS volumes.

用户在安装 Windows 2000 之前,应该先决定选择哪一种文件系统。Windows 2000 支持使用 NTFS 文件系统和文件分配表文件系统(FAT 或 FAT32)。本节以下内容将对以上的几种文件系统作简单介绍。

Users should decide which file system to choose before installing Windows 2000. Windows 2000 supports the use of NTFS file system and file allocation table file system (fat or FAT32). The following content of this section will make a brief introduction to the above file systems.

FAT 文件系统

Fat file system

FAT 文件系统最初用于小型磁盘和简单文件结构的简单文件系统。FAT 文件系统得名于它的组织方法:放置在卷起始位置的文件分配表。为了保护卷,使用了两份拷贝,确保即使损坏了一份也能正常工作。另外,为确保正确装卸启动系统所必须的文件,文件分配表和根文件夹必须存放在固定的位置。

Fat file system was originally used in small disk and simple file structure file system. Fat file system is named after its organization method: the file allocation table placed at the beginning of the volume. To protect the volume, two copies are used to ensure that even if one is damaged, it will work properly. In addition, in order to ensure the correct loading and unloading of the files necessary for the start-up system, the file allocation table and root folder must be stored in a fixed location.

采用 FAT 文件系统格式化的卷以簇的形式进行分配。默认的簇大小由卷的大小决定。对于 FAT 文件系统,簇数目必须可以用 16 位的二进制数字表示,并且是 2 的乘方。通过使用命令行提示符下的 format 程序,用户可以指定簇的大小。不过,用户所指定的簇的大小必须大于表中给出的大小。由于额外开销的原因,在大于 511MB 的卷中不推荐使用 FAT 文件系统。如果用户的计算机上运行的是 Windows 95、Windows for Workgroups、MS-DOS、OS/2 或 Windows 95 以前的版本,那么 FAT 文件系统格式是最佳的选择。

Volumes formatted with fat file system are allocated in the form of clusters. The default cluster size is determined by the size of the volume. For fat file system, the number of clusters must be 16 bit binary number and the power of 2. By using the format program at the command line prompt, the user can specify the size of the cluster. However, the cluster size specified by the user must be larger than the size given in the table. Fat file system is not recommended for volumes larger than 511MB due to additional overhead. If the user’s computer is running Windows 95, windows for workgroups, MS-DOS, OS / 2 or pre Windows 95, the fat file system format is the best choice.

不过,需要注意的是,FAT 文件系统最好被用在较小的卷上。因为,在不考虑簇大小的情况下,使用 FAT 文件系统,卷不能大于 4GB。

Note, however, that fat file systems are best used on smaller volumes. Because, without considering the cluster size, using fat file system, the volume cannot be larger than 4GB.

FAT32 文件系统

FAT32 file system

FAT32 文件系统提供了比 FAT 文件系统更为先进的文件管理特性,例如,支持超过 32GB 的卷以及通过使用更小的簇来更有效率地使用磁盘空间。作为 FAT 文件系统的增强版本,它可以在容量从 512MB 到 2TB 的磁盘驱动器上使用。

FAT32 file system provides more advanced file management features than fat file system, such as supporting volumes over 32GB and using disk space more efficiently by using smaller clusters. As an enhanced version of fat file system, it can be used on 512MB to 2TB disk drives.

在以前的操作系统中,只有 Windows 2000、Windows 98 和 Windows 95 OEM Release 2 版能够访问 FAT32 卷。MS-DOS、Windows 3.1 及较早的版本、Windows for Workgroups、Windows NT 4.0 及更早的版本都不能识别 FAT32 卷,同时也不能从 FAT32 上启动它们。FAT 和 FAT32 可以与 Windows 2000 之外的其它操作系统兼容。如果设置了双重启动配置,很可能需要 FAT 或 FAT32 文件系统。如果用户正在对 Windows 2000 和另一个操作系统进行双重启动配置,请选择一个适用于后者的文件系统。选择的标准如下:

In previous operating systems, only Windows 2000, Windows 98, and windows 95 OEM release 2 had access to FAT32 volumes. MS-DOS, windows 3.1 and earlier, windows for workgroups, Windows NT 4.0, and earlier do not recognize FAT32 volumes and cannot start them from FAT32. Fat and FAT32 are compatible with other operating systems except Windows 2000. If you set up a dual boot configuration, you will most likely need a fat or FAT32 file system. If you are configuring Windows 2000 and another operating system for dual boot, select a file system for the latter. The selection criteria are as follows:

o 如果安装分区小于 2GB,或者如果希望双重启动配置 Windows 2000 和 MS – DOS、Windows 3.1、Windows 95 或 Windows NT 较早的版本,将安装分区格式化为 FAT。

O if the installation partition is less than 2GB, or if you want to configure Windows 2000 and MS – DOS, windows 3.1, Windows 95, or earlier versions of Windows NT, format the installation partition as fat.

o 在大于或等于 2GB 的分区上使用 FAT32 文件系统。如果在 Windows 2000 安装程序中选择使用 FAT 格式化,并且安装分区大于 2GB,安装程序将自动按 FAT32 格式化。对于大于 32GB 的分区,建议您使用 NTFS 而不用 FAT32 文件系统。

O use FAT32 file system on partitions greater than or equal to 2GB. If you choose to use fat format in Windows 2000 setup program, and the installation partition is larger than 2GB, the installation program will automatically format according to FAT32. For partitions larger than 32GB, it is recommended that you use NTFS instead of FAT32 file system.

NTFS 文件系统

NTFS file system

Windows 2000 所推荐使用的 NTFS 文件系统提供了 FAT 和 FAT32 文件系统所没有的、全面的性能,可靠性和兼容性。NTFS 文件系统的设计目标就是用来在很大的硬盘上能够很快地执行诸如:读、写和搜索这样的标准文件操作,甚至包括像文件系统恢复这样的高级操作。NTFS 文件系统包括了公司环境中文件服务器和高端个人计算机所需的安全特性。NTFS 文件系统还支持对于关键数据完整性十分重要的数据访问控制和私有权限。除了可以赋予 Windows 2000 计算机中的共享文件夹特定权限外, NTFS 文件和文件夹无论共享与否都可以赋予权限。NTFS 是 Windows 2000 中唯一允许为单个文件指定权限的文件系统。然而,当用户从 NTFS 卷移动或复制文件到 FAT 卷时,NTFS 文件系统权限和其它特有属性将会丢失。

The NTFS file system recommended by Windows 2000 provides comprehensive performance, reliability and compatibility that fat and FAT32 file systems do not have. NTFS file system is designed to perform standard file operations such as read, write, and search on a large hard disk, and even advanced operations such as file system recovery. NTFS file system includes the security features required by file servers and high-end personal computers in corporate environments. The NTFS file system also supports data access control and private permissions that are important for critical data integrity. In addition to giving specific permissions to shared folders in Windows 2000 computers, NTFS files and folders can be granted permissions whether they are shared or not. NTFS is the only file system in Windows 2000 that allows you to specify permissions for a single file. However, NTFS file system permissions and other unique attributes are lost when users move or copy files from NTFS volumes to fat volumes.

像 FAT 文件系统一样,NTFS 文件系统使用簇作为磁盘分配的基本单元。在 NTFS 文件系统中,默认的簇大小取决于卷的大小。在”磁盘管理器”中,用户可以指定的簇大小最大为 4k。

Like fat file system, NTFS file system uses clusters as the basic unit of disk allocation. In NTFS file systems, the default cluster size depends on the size of the volume. In disk manager, the maximum cluster size that users can specify is 4K.

Windows 2000 包括一个新版本的 NTFS,该文件系统在原有的灵活的安全特性(比如域和用户帐户数据库)之上又加入了新的特性,如活动目录(Active Directory)Windows 2000 中使用的 NTFS 文件系统支持以下特性:

Windows 2000 includes a new version of NTFS, which adds new features to the original flexible security features (such as domain and user account database), such as active directory. The NTFS file system used in Windows 2000 supports the following features:

o 活动目录。使网络管理者和网络用户可以方便灵活地查看和控制网络资源。

O active directory. Network managers and users can view and control network resources conveniently and flexibly.

o 域。它是活动目录的一部分,帮助网络管理者兼顾管理的简单性和网络的安全性。例如,只有在 NTFS 文件系统中用户才能设置单个文件的许可权限而不仅仅是目录的许可权限。

O domain. It is a part of the active directory, which helps network managers to take into account the simplicity of management and the security of the network. For example, only in NTFS file systems can users set permissions for individual files, not just for directories.

o 文件加密。能够大大提高信息的安全性。

O file encryption. It can greatly improve the security of information.

o 稀松文件。应用程序生成的一种特殊文件,它的文件尺寸非常大,但实际上只需要少部分的磁盘空间。就是说,NTFS 只需要给这种文件实际写入的数据分配磁盘存储空间。

O loose files. A special file generated by an application that is very large in size but actually requires only a small portion of disk space. In other words, NTFS only needs to allocate disk storage space to the data actually written to such files.

o 其他的数据存储模式。这些模式可以提高存储和修改信息的效率。

O other data storage modes. These patterns can improve the efficiency of storing and modifying information.

o 磁盘活动的恢复日志。它将帮助用户在电源失效或其他系统故障时快速恢复信息。

O recovery log of disk activity. It will help users recover information quickly in case of power failure or other system failures.

o 磁盘配额。管理者可以管理和控制每个用户所能使用的最大磁盘空间。

O disk quota. Managers can manage and control the maximum disk space that each user can use.

o 对于大容量驱动器的良好扩展性。NTFS 中最大驱动器的尺寸远远大于 FAT 格式的,而且,NTFS 的性能和存储效率并不象 FAT 那样随着驱动器尺寸的增大而降低。

O good scalability for large capacity drives. The size of the largest drive in NTFS is far larger than that in fat format, and the performance and storage efficiency of NTFS do not decrease with the increase of drive size, as fat does.

只有在 NTFS 文件系统中用户才可以使用诸如”活动目录”和基于域的安全策略等重要特性。

Only in NTFS file systems can users use important features such as active directory and domain based security policies.

需要把整个磁盘或某个磁盘驱动器做成 NTFS 文件系统的用户,可在安装 Windows 2000 时,在安装向导的帮助下完成所有操作。安装程序可以很轻松地把分区转化为新版本的 NTFS 文件系统,即使以前的分区使用的是 FAT 或 FAT32。安装程序会检测现有的文件系统格式。如果是 NTFS,则自动进行转换;如果是 FAT 或 FAT32,会提示安装者是否转换为 NTFS。用户也可以在安装完毕之后使用 Convert.exe 来把 FAT 或 FAT32 的分区转化为新版本的 NTFS 分区。无论是在运行安装程序中还是在运行安装程序之后,这种转换都不会使用户的文件受到损害(相对于重新格式化磁盘来说)。

Users who need to make the whole disk or a certain disk drive into NTFS file system can complete all operations with the help of the installation wizard when installing Windows 2000. Setup can easily convert a partition to a new version of the NTFS file system, even if the previous partition used fat or FAT32. The setup program detects existing file system formats. If it is NTFS, it will be converted automatically; if it is fat or FAT32, the installer will be prompted whether to convert to NTFS. Users can also use it after installation Convert.exe To convert a fat or FAT32 partition into a new version of NTFS partition. This conversion does not damage the user’s files (as opposed to reformatting the disk) either during or after running the setup program.

如果使用双重启动配置,则可能无法从计算机上的另一个操作系统访问 NTFS 分区上的文件。所以,如果要使用双重启动配置,FAT32 或者 FAT 文件系统将是更适合的选择。

If you use a dual boot configuration, you may not be able to access files on an NTFS partition from another operating system on your computer. Therefore, if you want to use dual boot configuration, FAT32 or fat file system will be a more suitable choice.

NTFS 和文件分配表文件系统的区别

Differences between NTFS and file allocation table file systems

运行 Windows 2000 的计算机的磁盘分区可以使用三种类型的文件系统: NTFS、FAT 和 FAT32。安装 Windows 2000 的用户建议使用 NTFS 文件系统。FAT 和 FAT32 很相似,只是 FAT32 更适合于较大容量的硬盘(对于大硬盘来说,最佳的文件系统是 NTFS)。本节将帮助用户比较各种文件系统的优劣。

There are three types of file systems that can be used on a computer running Windows 2000: NTFS, fat, and FAT32. Users who install Windows 2000 recommend using the NTFS file system. Fat and FAT32 are very similar, but FAT32 is more suitable for larger hard disks (for large hard disks, the best file system is NTFS). This section will help users compare the advantages and disadvantages of various file systems.

NTFS 文件系统是使用 Windows 2000 所推荐的文件系统。NTFS 具有 FAT 文件系统的所有基本功能,并且提供如下的 FAT 或 FAT32 文件系统所没有的优点:

NTFS file system is recommended by Windows 2000. NTFS has all the basic functions of fat file system, and provides the following advantages that fat or FAT32 file system does not have:

o 更为安全的文件。

O more secure files.

o 更好的磁盘压缩性能。

O better disk compression performance.

o 支持最大达 2TB 的大硬盘(NTFS 可支持的最大磁盘容量比 FAT 的大得多,而且随着磁盘容量的增大,NTFS 的性能不像 FAT 那样随之降低)。

O support large hard disks up to 2TB (the maximum disk capacity that NTFS can support is much larger than that of fat, and with the increase of disk capacity, the performance of NTFS does not decrease as fat does).

o 双重启动配置(在同一台计算机上同时安装有 Windows 2000 和其他操作系统)。

O dual boot configuration (Windows 2000 and other operating systems installed on the same computer).

只有一种情况用户可能需要使用 FAT 或 FAT32 文件系统,就是确有必要配置 Windows 2000 和早期操作系统的双重启动。在这种情况下,用户就应该把系统配置成双重启动并在硬盘上用 FAT 或 FAT32 分

There is only one case that users may need to use fat or FAT32 file system, that is, it is necessary to configure the dual boot of Windows 2000 and earlier operating systems. In this case, the user should configure the system to double boot and use fat or FAT32 on the hard disk


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