• 欢迎访问速搜资源吧,如果在网站上找不到你需要的资源,可以在留言板上留言,管理员会尽量满足你!

【速搜问答】简单网络管理协议是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-08-11) 463次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

简单网络管理协议(SNMP) 是专门设计用于在 IP 网络管理网络节点(服务器、工作站、路由器、交换机及HUBS等)的一种标准协议,它是一种应用层协议。

Simple network management protocol (SNMP) is a standard protocol specially designed to manage network nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches and hubs) in IP networks. It is an application layer protocol.

简单网络管理协议(SNMP) 是专门设计用于在 IP 网络管理网络节点(服务器、工作站、路由器、交换机及 HUBS 等)的一种标准协议,它是一种应用层协议。

Simple network management protocol (SNMP) is a standard protocol specially designed to manage network nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches and hubs) in IP networks. It is an application layer protocol.

简介

brief introduction

SNMP 是专门设计用于在 IP 网络管理网络节点(服务器、工作站、路由器、交换机及 HUBS 等)的一种标准协议,它是一种应用层协议。 SNMP 使网络管理员能够管理网络效能,发现并解决网络问题以及规划网络增长。通过 SNMP 接收随机消息(及事件报告)网络管理系统获知网络出现问题。

SNMP is a standard protocol specially designed to manage network nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches and hubs) in IP networks. It is an application layer protocol. SNMP enables network administrators to manage network performance, identify and resolve network problems, and plan for network growth. Receiving random messages (and event reports) through SNMP, the network management system is informed of network problems.

SNMP 的前身是简单网关监控协议(SGMP),用来对通信线路进行管理。随后,人们对 SGMP 进行了很大的修改,特别是加入了符合 Internet 定义的 SMI 和 MIB,改进后的协议就是著名的 SNMP。基于 TCP/IP 的 SNMP 网络管理框架是工业上的现行标准,由 3 个主要部分组成,分别是管理信息结构 SMI(Structure ofManagement Information)、管理信息库 MIB 和管理协议 SNMP。

The predecessor of SNMP is simple gateway monitoring protocol (SGMP), which is used to manage communication lines. After that, SGMP has been greatly modified, especially SMI and MIB which conform to the definition of Internet are added. The improved protocol is the famous SNMP. SNMP network management framework based on TCP / IP is the current standard in industry. It is composed of three main parts: SMI (structure of management information), MIB and SNMP.

SMI 定义了 SNMP 框架所用信息的组织和标识,为 MIB 定义管理对象及使用管理对象提供模板。

SMI defines the organization and identification of information used by SNMP framework, and provides templates for MIB to define and use management objects.

MIB 定义了可以通过 SNMP 进行访问的管理对象的集合。

MIB defines a collection of management objects that can be accessed through SNMP.

SNMP 协议是应用层协议,定义了网络管理者如何对代理进程的 MIB 对象进行读写操作。

SNMP protocol is an application layer protocol, which defines how to read and write MIB object of agent process.

SNMP 中的 MIB 是一种树状数据库,MIB 管理的对象,就是树的端节点,每个节点都有唯一位置和唯一名字.IETF 规定管理信息库对象识别符(OID,Object Identifier)唯一指定,其命名规则就是父节点的名字作为子节点名字的前缀。

MIB in SNMP is a kind of tree database. The object managed by MIB is the end node of the tree. Each node has a unique location and a unique name. IETF stipulates that the object identifier (OID) of management information base is uniquely specified, and its naming rule is that the name of the parent node is used as the prefix of the name of the child node.

组成部分

component

一个 SNMP 管理的网络由下列三个关键组件组成:

An SNMP managed network consists of the following three key components:

网络管理系统(NMS,Network-management systems)

Network management systems (NMS)

被管理的设备(managed device)

Managed device

代理者(agent)

Agent

网络管理系统运行应用程序,以该应用程序监视并控制被管理的设备。也称为管理实体(managingentity),网络管理员在这儿与网络设备进行交互。网络管理系统提供网络管理需要的大量运算和记忆资源。一个被管理的网络可能存在一个以上的网络管理系统。

The network management system runs applications to monitor and control the managed devices. Also known as managing entity, where network administrators interact with network devices. Network management system provides a lot of computing and memory resources for network management. A managed network may have more than one network management system.

被管理的设备是一个网络节点,它包含一个存在于被管理的网络中的 SNMP 代理者。被管理的设备通过管理信息库(MIB)收集并存储管理信息,并且让网络管理系统能够通过 SNMP 代理者取得这项信息。

The managed device is a network node that contains an SNMP agent that exists in the managed network. Managed devices collect and store management information through management information base (MIB), and enable network management system to obtain this information through SNMP agent.

代理者是一种存在于被管理的设备中的网络管理软件模块。代理者控制本地机器的管理信息,以和 SNMP 兼容的格式传送这项信息。

Agent is a kind of network management software module existing in the managed device. The agent controls the management information of the local machine and transmits this information in an SNMP compatible format.

技术优点

Technical advantages

SNMP 是管理进程(NMS)和代理进程(Agent)之间的通信协议。它规定了在网络环境中对设备进行监视和管理的标准化管理框架、通信的公共语言、相应的安全和访问控制机制。网络管理员使用 SNMP 功能可以查询设备信息、修改设备的参数值、监控设备状态、自动发现网络故障、生成报告等。

SNMP is a communication protocol between management process (NMS) and agent process (agent). It provides a standardized management framework for monitoring and managing devices in the network environment, a common language for communication, and corresponding security and access control mechanisms. Using SNMP function, network administrators can query device information, modify device parameter values, monitor device status, automatically discover network faults, and generate reports.

SNMP 具有以下技术优点:

SNMP has the following technical advantages:

基于 TCP/IP 互联网的标准协议,传输层协议一般采用 UDP。

Based on the standard protocol of TCP / IP Internet, the transport layer protocol generally adopts UDP.

自动化网络管理。网络管理员可以利用 SNMP 平台在网络上的节点检索信息、修改信息、发现故障、完成故障诊断、进行容量规划和生成报告。

Automatic network management. Network administrators can use SNMP platform to retrieve information, modify information, find faults, complete fault diagnosis, carry out capacity planning and generate reports.

屏蔽不同设备的物理差异,实现对不同厂商产品的自动化管理。SNMP 只提供最基本的功能集,使得管理任务与被管设备的物理特性和实际网络类型相对独立,从而实现对不同厂商设备的管理。

Shield the physical differences of different devices, and realize the automatic management of products from different manufacturers. SNMP only provides the most basic function set, which makes the management task relatively independent of the physical characteristics and actual network types of the managed devices, so as to realize the management of different manufacturers’ devices.

简单的请求—应答方式和主动通告方式相结合,并有超时和重传机制。

The simple request response mode is combined with active notification mode, and has timeout and retransmission mechanism.

报文种类少,报文格式简单,方便解析,易于实现。

There are few kinds of messages, simple format, easy analysis and implementation.

SNMPv3 版本提供了认证和加密安全机制,以及基于用户和视图的访问控制功能,增强了安全性。

SNMPv3 version provides authentication and encryption security mechanism, as well as user and view based access control functions to enhance security.

架构方式

Architecture

主代理

Principal agent

主代理是一个在可运行 SNMP 的网络组件上运作的软件,可回应从管理站发出的 SNMP 要求。它的角色类似客户端/服务器结构(Client/Server)术语中的服务器。主代理依赖子代理提供有关特定功能的管理信息。

The master agent is a software that operates on a network component that can run SNMP and can respond to SNMP requests from the management station. Its role is similar to the server in the term of client / server. The master agent relies on sub agents to provide management information about specific functions.

如果系统当前拥有多个可管理的子系统,主代理就会传递它从一个或多个子代理处收到的请求。这些子代理在一个子系统以及对那个子系统进行监测和管理操作的接口内为关心的对象建模。主代理和子代理的角色可以合并,在这种情况下我们可以简单的称之为代理(agent)。

If the system currently has multiple manageable subsystems, the master agent delivers the requests it receives from one or more sub agents. These subagents model the objects of interest within a subsystem and the interfaces that monitor and manage that subsystem. The roles of master agent and sub agent can be merged, in this case we can simply call it agent.

协议种类

Type of agreement

目前, SNMP 有 3 种: SNMPV1 、 SNMPV2 、 SNMPV3。第 1 版和第 2 版没有太大差距,但 SNMPV2 是增强版本,包含了其它协议操作。与前两种相比, SNMPV3 则包含更多安全和远程配置。为了解决不同 SNMP 版本间的不兼容问题, RFC3584 中定义了三者共存策略。

At present, there are three kinds of SNMP: SNMPv1, SNMPv2 and SNMPv3. There is no big gap between version 1 and version 2, but SNMPv2 is an enhanced version, including other protocol operations. Compared with the first two, SNMPv3 includes more security and remote configuration. In order to solve the incompatibility between different SNMP versions, rfc3584 defines the coexistence strategy of the three.

SNMP 还包括一组由 RMON、RMON2、MTB、MTB2、OCDS 及 OCDS 定义的扩展协议。

SNMP also includes a set of extended protocols defined by RMON, RMON2, MTB, mtb2, OCDs and OCDs.

协议结构

Protocol structure

SNMP 是一种应用程序协议,封装在 UDP 中。各种版本的 SNMP 信息通用格式如下所示:

SNMP is an application protocol, encapsulated in UDP. The common format of various versions of SNMP information is as follows:

Version Community PDU

Version Community PDU

Version:SNMP 版本号。管理器和代理器必须使用相同版本的 SNMP。需要删除具有不同版本号的信息,并不对它们作进一步的处理。

Version: SNMP version number. Managers and agents must use the same version of SNMP. Information with different version numbers needs to be deleted without further processing.

Community:团体名称,用于在访问代理器之前认证管理器。

Community: the name of the community used to authenticate the manager before accessing the agent.

PDU(协议数据单元):SNMPv1、v2 和 v3 中的 PDU 类型和格式将在对应文件中作具体介绍。

PDU (protocol data unit): the type and format of PDU in SNMPv1, V2 and V3 will be described in the corresponding file.

开发和使用

Development and use

第一版

first edition

SNMP 的第一个 RFC 系列出现在 1988 年:

The first RFC series of SNMP appeared in 1988:

RFC 1065:基于 TCP/IP 网络的管理信息的结构和认定

RFC 1065: structure and identification of management information based on TCP / IP network

RFC 1066:以基于 TCP/IP 网络的网络管理为基础的管理信息

RFC 1066: management information based on TCP / IP network management

RFC 1067:一个简单网络管理协议

RFC 1067: a simple network management protocol

这些协议被废除经由:

These agreements were repealed by:

RFC 1155:基于 TCP/IP 网络的管理信息的结构和认定

RFC 1155: structure and identification of management information based on TCP / IP network

RFC 1156:以基于 TCP/IP 网络的网络管理为基础的管理信息

RFC 1156: management information based on TCP / IP network management

RFC 1157:一个简单网络管理协议

RFC 1157: a simple network management protocol

SNMP 协议工作在 OSI 模型的应用层(第七层)。它(在第一版中)指定了四种核心协议数据单元(PDU):

SNMP protocol works in the application layer of OSI model (layer 7). It specifies four core protocol data units (PDUs) in the first release:

GET,用来得到一条管理信息

Get to get a management message

GETNEXT,用来反复得到管理信息的串行

GetNext, used to repeatedly get the serial management information

SET,用来给一个被管理的子系统制造一个变化

Set, used to make a change to a managed subsystem

TRAP,用来报告一个关于被管理子系统的警告或其他异步事件

Trap, used to report a warning or other asynchronous event about the managed subsystem

典型的,SNMP 为代理使用 UDP 端口 161,为管理站使用 UDP 端口 162。

Typically, SNMP uses UDP port 161 for agents and UDP port 162 for management stations.

第一版因为其脆弱的安全性而备受争议。客户端的认证使用明码传送。在 80 年代,SNMP 第一版被设计出来的时期,互联网标准的认证/安全并不被主要的协议设计团体所重视。

The first edition is controversial because of its fragile security. The client’s authentication is transmitted by plain code. In the 1980s, when the first version of SNMP was designed, the authentication / security of Internet standards was not taken seriously by the major protocol design community.


速搜资源网 , 版权所有丨如未注明 , 均为原创丨转载请注明原文链接:【速搜问答】简单网络管理协议是什么
喜欢 (0)
[361009623@qq.com]
分享 (0)
发表我的评论
取消评论
表情 贴图 加粗 删除线 居中 斜体 签到

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址