O2o marketing model, also known as offline business model, refers to online marketing, online purchase driving offline business and offline consumption. O2o pushes the information of offline stores to Internet users by means of discount, information provision and service reservation, so as to transform them into offline customers. This is especially suitable for goods and services that must be consumed in stores.
O2O 营销模式又称离线商务模式，是指线上营销线上购买带动线下经营和线下消费。O2O 通过打折、提供信息、服务预订等方式，把线下商店的消息推送给互联网用户，从而将他们转换为自己的线下客户，这就特别适合必须到店消费的商品和服务，比如餐饮、健身、看电影和演出、美容美发、摄影等。
O2o marketing model, also known as offline business model, refers to online marketing, online purchase driving offline business and offline consumption. O2o pushes the information of offline stores to Internet users by means of discount, information provision and service reservation, so as to transform them into their offline customers. This is especially suitable for goods and services that must be consumed in the store, such as catering, fitness, watching movies and performances, beauty salons, photography, etc.
随着互联网的快速发展，电子商务模式除了原有的 B2B，B2C，C2C，商业模式之外，一种新型的消费模式 O2O 已快速在市场上发展起来。对于 B2B，B2C 商业模式下，买家在线拍下商品，卖家打包商品，找物流企业把订单发出，由物流快递人员把商品派送到买家手上，完成整个交易过程。这种消费模式已经发展很成熟，也被人们普遍接受，但是在美国这种电子商务非常发达的国家，在线消费交易比例只占 8%，线下消费比例达到 92%。由于消费者大部分的消费仍然是在实体店中实现，把线上的消费者吸引到线下实体店进行消费，这个部分有很大的发展空间，所以有商家开始了这种消费模式。
With the rapid development of the Internet, in addition to the original B2B, B2C, C2C, business model, a new consumption model o2o has developed rapidly in the market. For B2B, B2C business model, the buyer takes the goods online, the seller packs the goods, finds the logistics enterprise to send out the order, and the logistics express personnel deliver the goods to the buyer to complete the whole transaction process. This kind of consumption mode has developed very mature and is generally accepted by people. However, in the United States, which is a very developed e-commerce country, the proportion of online consumption and offline consumption is only 8% and 92% respectively. Since most of consumers’ consumption is still realized in physical stores, attracting online consumers to offline physical stores for consumption, this part has a lot of room for development, so some businesses have started this consumption mode.
O2o for users:
① Access to more abundant and comprehensive business and service content information.
② More convenient to business online consultation and booking.
③ Get cheaper prices than offline direct consumption.
O2o for businesses:
① More publicity and exhibition opportunities can be obtained to attract more new customers to the store for consumption.
② The promotion effect can be checked and each transaction can be tracked.
③ Master user data, greatly improve the maintenance and marketing effect of old customers.
④ Better understanding of user psychology through user communication and resolution of doubts.
⑤ Through effective online booking and other ways, reasonable arrangement of operation and cost saving.
⑥ It is faster to stimulate the consumption of new products and new stores.
⑦ Reduce the offline entities to the prime location, greatly reducing the rental expenditure.
对 O2O 平台本身而言：
For o2o platform itself:
① It is closely related to the daily life of users, and can bring convenience, preferential treatment, consumption protection and other functions to users, and can attract a large number of high viscosity users.
② It has a strong promotion effect on businesses and can attract a large number of offline life service businesses to join.
③ 数倍于 C2C、B2C 的现金流。
③ Several times the cash flow of C2C and B2C.
④ Huge advertising revenue space and more profit model after the formation of scale.
The benefits of o2o mode are that orders are generated online, each transaction can be traced, and the promotion effect is transparent. Let consumers choose their favorite services online and then enjoy them offline.
O2O 模式作为线下商务与互联网结合的新模式，解决了传统行业的电子商务化问题。但是，O2O 模式并非简单的互联网模式，此模式的实施对企业的线下能力是一个不小的挑战。可以说，线下能力的高低很大程度上决定了这个模式能否成功。而线下能力的高低又是因为线上的用户黏度决定的，拥有大量优势用户资源、本地化程度较高的垂直网站将借助 O2O 模式，成为角逐未来电子商务市场的主力军。
O2o mode, as a new mode combining offline commerce and Internet, solves the problem of e-commerce in traditional industries. However, o2o mode is not a simple internet mode, and the implementation of this mode is not a small challenge to the offline capabilities of enterprises. It can be said that the level of offline ability largely determines the success of this mode. The offline capability is determined by the viscosity of online users. Vertical websites with a large number of advantageous user resources and high localization will become the main force to compete in the future e-commerce market with the help of o2o mode.
O2O 模式的关键点就在于，平台通过在线的方式吸引消费者，但真正消费的服务或者产品必须由消费者去线下体验，这就对线下服务提出更高的要求。而这些线上迅速崛起的创业型公司能否掌控稳定的服务体系也是一个很大的问题，比如美国发展迅速的短期租房网站 Airbnb 就因为线下的问题遭到了很多人的质疑。曾有一名房客“洗劫”了房东的房间。Airbnb 团队对线下风险把控的不足的同时也显示了这种模式的短板。大多数 O2O 模式的企业并不能掌握线下服务的质量，只相当于一个第三方中介，在中间起到协调作用。此外，在线支付、线下体验，很容易造成“付款前是上帝，付款后什么都不是”的窘境。比如定制类实体商品与消费者预定不符，一旦质量低于预期，甚至极为低劣，消费者会处于非常被动的境地。对于 O2O 模式而言，线下的主体多半是服务类型的企业，而国内服务存在各种不规范的运营，虽然团购已经进行了先期教育，但是距离稳定完善的服务仍相去甚远，因此如何保障线上信息与线下商家服务对称，将会成为挑战 O2O 模式能否真正发展起来的一个关键节点。
The key point of o2o mode is that the platform attracts consumers through online way, but the real consumption of services or products must be experienced offline by consumers, which puts forward higher requirements for offline services. It is also a big problem whether these online fast-growing entrepreneurial companies can control the stable service system. For example, airbnb, a fast-growing short-term rental website in the United States, has been questioned by many people because of its offline problems. A tenant once “ransacked” the landlord’s room. Airbnb team’s lack of offline risk control also shows the shortcomings of this model. Most o2o enterprises can’t master the quality of offline services. They only act as a third-party intermediary and play a coordinating role in the middle. In addition, online payment and offline experience can easily lead to the dilemma of “God before payment, nothing after payment”. For example, if the quality of customized physical goods is not in line with consumers’ reservation, once the quality is lower than expected or even extremely poor, consumers will be in a very passive position. For o2o mode, most of the offline entities are service type enterprises. However, there are various kinds of non-standard operations in domestic services. Although group buying has carried out early education, it is still far from stable and perfect services. Therefore, how to ensure the symmetry between online information and offline business services will become a challenge to o2o Whether the mode can really develop is a key node.
If o2o mode attracts consumers with its price advantage, this paper only looks at the problem with group buying mode. It is also a difficult problem for businesses to balance the differences between online and offline prices, not to break their original market system, but to ensure the interests of both consumers, or to pay more attention to which side of consumers can attract the maximum customer flow.
这些难题同时决定了对 O2O 模式的商业运用需要高起点的局限性，其商业运用已经不仅仅是单纯网络平台的形成，具有本地化性质的商业运营网点的覆盖势必成为 O2O 模式的重要支撑，而此这些本地化运维中心出现，也同时解决了一个大规模的商业平台如何做到线上线下商家服务推广问题，因为在大规模本地化运维网点已经将一个大问题分解成了多个小问题，将商家合作、商业推广等等问题细化，保证审核关口前提下，可以最大限度的保证各种服务信息的可靠性、真实性。
At the same time, these problems determine the limitation of high starting point for the commercial application of o2o mode. Its commercial application is not only the formation of simple network platform, but also the coverage of localized commercial operation network is bound to become o2o The emergence of these localized operation and maintenance centers also solves the problem of how to promote online and offline business services for a large-scale commercial platform, because in large-scale localized operation and maintenance outlets, a big problem has been decomposed into several small problems, and the problems of business cooperation, business promotion and other issues are refined to ensure the audit gateway To ensure the reliability and authenticity of all kinds of service information.
Moreover, with the help of the application of various intelligent terminals, under the premise of maximizing the accumulation of consumer users and large-scale operation network coverage, it can ensure that users can go, play and enjoy, and maximize the user experience, so as to promote the business services invisibly and accumulate the users, forming a virtuous circle chain of commercial services.
The core of o2o marketing model is online prepayment.
数据显示，即使在电子商务最发达的美国，线下消费的比例依旧高达 92%。 TrialPay 创始人兼 CEO Alex Rampell 在描述庞大的线下消费规模时举例说，“普通的网络购物者每年花费约 1000 美元，假使普通美国人每年收入为 4 万美元，那么剩下的 39000 美元到哪里了？答案是，大部分都在本地消费了，人们会把钱花在咖啡店、酒吧、健身房、餐厅、加油站、水电工、干洗店和发廊。”
Data show that even in the United States, where e-commerce is the most developed, the proportion of offline consumption is still as high as 92%. Alex rampell, founder and CEO of TrialPay, for example, describes the huge scale of offline consumption. “The average online shopper spends about $1000 a year. If the average American earns $40000 a year, where is the remaining $39000? The answer is that most of it is consumed locally, and people spend their money in coffee shops, bars, gyms, restaurants, gas stations, water electricians, dry cleaners and hair salons. “
这不仅仅是因为线下的服务不能装箱运送，快递本身无法传递社交体验所带来的快乐。但如果能通过 O2O 模式，将线下商品及服务进行展示，并提供在线支付“预约消费”，这对于消费者来说，不仅拓宽了选择的余地，还可以通过线上对比择选最令人期待的服务，依照消费者的区域性享受商家提供的更适合的服务。但如果没有线上展示，也许消费者会很难知晓商家信息，更不用提消费二字了。另外，正在运用 O2O 摸索前行的商家们，也常会使用比线下支付要更为优惠的手段吸引客户进行在线支付，这也为对消费者节约了不少的支出。
It’s not just that offline services can’t be delivered in boxes, and express delivery itself can’t deliver the joy of social experience. However, if the o2o model can be used to display offline goods and services, and provide online payment “appointment consumption”, consumers can not only broaden the scope of choice, but also choose the most expected services through online comparison, and enjoy more suitable services provided by businesses according to the regional characteristics of consumers. But if there is no online display, it may be difficult for consumers to know the business information, let alone the word “consumption”. In addition, businesses that are exploring the way forward with o2o often use more favorable means than offline payment to attract customers to make online payment, which also saves a lot of expenses for consumers.
对于本地商家而言，原本线上广告的成效可以直接被转换成实际的购买行为，由于每笔完成的订单在确认页面都有“追踪码”，商家在更为轻松的获知在线营销的投资回报率的同时，还能一并持续深入进行“客情维护”。其次，O2O 是一个增量的市场，由于服务行业的企业数量庞大，而且地域性特别强，很难在互联网平台做广告，就如同百度上很少出现酒吧、KTV、餐馆的关键词，但 O2O 模式的出现，会让这些服务行业的商家们一跃线上展开推广。
For local businesses, the effectiveness of the original online advertising can be directly converted into actual purchase behavior. Because each completed order has a “tracking code” on the confirmation page, it is easier for businesses to know the return on investment in online marketing, and at the same time, they can continue to conduct in-depth customer maintenance. Secondly, o2o is an incremental market. Due to the large number of enterprises in the service industry and the strong regional characteristics, it is difficult to advertise on the Internet platform, just as the keywords of bars, KTVs and restaurants rarely appear on Baidu. However, the emergence of o2o mode will make the businesses in these service industries jump online to promote.
从表面上看，O2O 的关键似乎是网络上的信息发布，因为只有互联网才能把商家信息传播得更快，更远，更广，可以瞬间聚集强大的消费能力。但实际上，O2O 的核心在于在线支付，一旦没有在线支付功能，O2O 中的 online 不过是替他人做嫁衣罢了。就拿团购而言，如果没有能力提供在线支付，仅凭网购后的自家统计结果去和商家要钱，结果双方无法就实际购买的人数达成精确的统一而陷入纠纷。
On the surface, the key to o2o seems to be the information release on the Internet, because only the Internet can spread business information faster, farther and more widely, and can gather powerful consumption power instantly. But in fact, the core of o2o is online payment. Once there is no online payment function, online in o2o is just a wedding dress for others. Take group buying as an example. If you can’t provide online payment, you can only ask for money from merchants based on your own statistics after online shopping. As a result, both parties can’t reach an accurate unity on the number of people they actually buy and fall into disputes.
在线支付不仅是支付本身的完成，是某次消费得以最终形成的唯一标志，更是消费数据唯一可靠的考核标准。尤其是对提供 online 服务的互联网专业公司而言，只有用户在线上完成支付，自身才可能从中获得效益，从而把准确的消费需求信息传递给 offline 的商业伙伴。无论 B2C，还是 C2C，均是在实现消费者能够在线支付后，才形成了完整的商业形态。而在以提供服务性消费为主，且不以广告收入为盈利模式的 O2O 中，在线支付更是举足轻重。
Online payment is not only the completion of the payment itself, but also the only sign of the final formation of a certain consumption, and the only reliable assessment standard of consumption data. Especially for the Internet professional companies that provide online services, only when users complete the payment online, can they obtain benefits from it, so as to transfer accurate consumption demand information to offline business partners. Both B2C and C2C have formed a complete business form after consumers can pay online. In o2o, which mainly provides service consumption and does not take advertising revenue as profit model, online payment is more important.
创新工场 CEO 李开复在提及 O2O 模式时指出，“你如果不知道 O2O 至少知道团购，但团购只是冰山一角，只是第一步。” 眼下仍旧风靡的团购，便是让消费者在线支付购买线下的商品和服务，再到线下去享受服务。然而，团购其实只是 O2O 模式中的初级商业方法，二者区别在于，O2O 是网上商城，而团购是低折扣的临时性促销，对于商家来说，团购这种营销方法没有可持续性，很难变成长期的经营方法。不过，也正是团购的如火如荼，方才拉开了 O2O 商业模式的序幕。
Li Kaifu, CEO of Innovation workshop, pointed out that “if you don’t know o2o, at least you know group buying, but group buying is just the tip of the iceberg, and it’s only the first step.” Online payment is still the most popular online service for consumers. However, group buying is only a primary business method in o2o mode. The difference between the two is that o2o is an online shopping mall, while group buying is a temporary promotion with low discount. For businesses, group buying is not sustainable and it is difficult to become a long-term business method. However, it is also the group buying in full swing, just opened the o2o business model prelude.
到 2010 四季度，中国网上零售市场销售规模达到 1728 亿元，但其占中国社会消费品零售总额的份额仅为 4.5%。因此，实现线上虚拟经济与线下实体经济的融合，具有广阔的市场空间，与此同时，O2O 模式的发展也正在逐步展现其多元化的一面来。
By the fourth quarter of 2010, the sales volume of China’s online retail market reached 172.8 billion yuan, but its share of total retail sales of consumer goods in China was only 4.5%. Therefore, the integration of online virtual economy and offline real economy has broad market space. At the same time, the development of o2o model is gradually showing its diversified side.
广州有家公司，通过自建网络展示平台，将家电与家居产品直接从生产厂家供给家庭，据 CEO 杨建斌介绍，作为国内首家 F2F（Factory to Family）家电及家居品牌，降低了代理商和家电卖场等渠道费用，能让消费者以平价购买到高档家电和家居产品。与其他家电家居卖家有所不同的是，消费者需要在官网上下单订购，而后享受到线下的上门定制服务，当然，消费者也可以
A company in Guangzhou provides home appliances and home furnishing products directly from the manufacturer through a self built network display platform. According to CEO Yang Jianbin, as the first F2F (factory to family) home appliance and home appliance brand in China, it reduces the channel costs of agents and home appliance stores, and enables consumers to buy high-end home appliances and home appliances at affordable prices. Different from other home appliance sellers, consumers need to place an order on the official website, and then enjoy the offline door-to-door customization service. Of course, consumers can also