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【速搜问答】网络虚拟架构是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-08-10) 496次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

网络虚拟架构又称服务器虚拟化,是指将一台物理的计算机软件环境分割为多个独立分区,每个分区均可以按照需求模拟出一台完整计算机的技术。

Network virtual architecture, also known as server virtualization, refers to the technology of dividing a physical computer software environment into multiple independent partitions, and each partition can simulate a complete computer according to the requirements.

网络虚拟架构又称服务器虚拟化,是指将一台物理的计算机软件环境分割为多个独立分区,每个分区均可以按照需求模拟出一台完整计算机的技术。

Network virtual architecture, also known as server virtualization, refers to the technology of dividing a physical computer software environment into multiple independent partitions, and each partition can simulate a complete computer according to the requirements.

概述

summary

虚拟化是一种方法,本质上讲是指从逻辑角度而不是物理角度来对资源进行配置,是从单一的逻辑角度来看待不同的物理资源的方法。以此出发,虚拟化是一种逻辑角度出发的资源配置技术,是物理实际的逻辑抽象。比如说,当前只有一台计算机,通过虚拟技术,在用户看来,可以多台,每台都有其各自的 CPU、内存、硬盘等物理资源。

Virtualization is a kind of method. In essence, it refers to the allocation of resources from a logical point of view rather than a physical point of view. From this point of view, virtualization is a kind of resource allocation technology from a logical point of view, which is the logical abstraction of physical reality. For example, there is only one computer at present. In the view of users, there can be multiple computers, each with its own CPU, memory, hard disk and other physical resources.

对于用户,虚拟化技术实现了软件跟硬件分离,用户不需要考虑后台的具体硬件实现,而只需在虚拟层环境上运行自己的系统和软件。而这些系统和软件在运行时,也似乎跟后台的物理平台无关。

For users, virtualization technology realizes the separation of software and hardware. Users do not need to consider the specific hardware implementation in the background, but only need to run their own system and software in the virtual layer environment. When these systems and software are running, they seem to have nothing to do with the background physical platform.

服务器虚拟化技术是将服务器物理资源抽象成逻辑资源,让一台服务器变成几台甚至上百台相互隔离的虚拟服务器,我们不再受限于物理上的界限,而是让 CPU、内存、磁盘、I/0 等硬件变成可以动态管理的“资源池”,从而提高资源的利用率,简化系统管理,实现服务器资源整合,让 IT 对业务的变化更具适应力。

Server virtualization technology abstracts the physical resources of the server into logical resources, and turns a server into several or even hundreds of virtual servers isolated from each other. We are no longer limited by the physical boundaries, but let CPU, memory, disk, I / 0 The hardware becomes a “resource pool” that can be dynamically managed, so as to improve resource utilization, simplify system management, realize server resource integration, and make it more adaptable to business changes.

虚拟化的概念在 20 世纪 60 年代首次出现,利用它可以对属于稀有而昂贵资源的大型机硬件进行分区。随着时间的推移,微型计算机和 PC 可提供更有效、更经济的方法来分配处理能力,因此到 20 世纪 80 年代,虚拟技术已不再广泛使用。

The concept of virtualization first appeared in the 1960s. It can be used to partition mainframe hardware, which is a rare and expensive resource. As time goes on, microcomputers and PCs can provide more efficient and economical ways to allocate processing power, so virtual technology is no longer widely used by the 1980s.

但是到了 20 世纪 90 年代,研究人员开始探索如何利用虚拟化解决与廉价硬件激增相关的一些问题,例如,利用率不足、管理成本不断攀升和易受攻击等。虚拟化技术处于时代前沿,可以帮助企业升级和管理他们在世界各地的 IT 基础架构并确保其安全。虚拟化技术可以扩大硬件的容量,简化软件的重新配置过程。CPU 的虚拟化技术可以单 CPU 模拟多 CPU 并行,允许一个平台同时运行多个操作系统,并且应用程序都可以在相互独立的空间内运行而互不影响,从而显著提高计算机的工作效率。

But in the 1990s, researchers began to explore how to use virtualization to solve some problems related to the proliferation of cheap hardware, such as underutilization, rising management costs and vulnerability. Virtualization technology is at the forefront of the times, helping enterprises upgrade, manage and secure their IT infrastructure around the world. Virtualization technology can expand the capacity of hardware and simplify the process of software reconfiguration. The virtualization technology of CPU can simulate multi CPU parallelism with a single CPU, allowing a platform to run multiple operating systems at the same time, and the application programs can run in independent space without affecting each other, so as to significantly improve the working efficiency of the computer.

所有的 IT 设备,不管是 PC、服务器还是存储,都有一个共同点:它们被设计用来完成一组特定的指令。这些指令组成一个指令集。对于虚拟技术而言,“虚拟”实际上就是指的虚拟这些指令集。虚拟机有许多不同的类型,但是它们有一个共同的主题就是模拟一个指令集的概念。每个虚拟机都有一个用户可以访问的指令集。虚拟机把这些虚拟指令“映射”到计算机的实际指令集。硬分区、软分区、逻辑分区、Solaris Container、VMware、Ken、微软 Hyper—V 这些虚拟技术都是运用的这个原理,只是虚拟指令集所处的层次位置不同。无论哪一种虚拟技术,都要求需要实施虚拟化的物理服务器能够良好地支持这些的虚拟化指令集。

All it devices, whether PC, server or storage, have one thing in common: they are designed to perform a specific set of instructions. These instructions form an instruction set. For virtual technology, “virtual” actually refers to the virtualization of these instruction sets. There are many different types of virtual machines, but they have a common theme: the concept of simulating an instruction set. Each virtual machine has a set of instructions that users can access. The virtual machine “maps” these virtual instructions to the actual instruction set of the computer. Hard partition, soft partition, logical partition, Solaris container, VMware, Ken, Microsoft Hyper-V all use this principle, but the level of virtual instruction set is different. No matter what kind of virtualization technology, the physical server that needs to implement virtualization should be able to support these virtualization instruction sets well.

虚拟化程度

Degree of virtualization

全虚拟化方式

Full virtualization

全虚拟化方式(Full Virtualization)是指虚拟管理层对底层硬件进行完全模拟,把底层硬件平台的 API 完整拷贝并提供给上层虚拟机,虚拟机中的客户操作系统和应用无法感知真实机器的存在。全虚拟化方式的优点是兼容性好,可以在虚拟机上使用任何类型的操作系统,客户操作系统无需修改,所有软件都能在虚拟机中运行;但其缺点是性能开销较大,以软件来完全模拟底层硬件必然影响硬件调用的性能。

Full virtualization means that the virtual management layer completely simulates the underlying hardware, copies the API of the underlying hardware platform and provides it to the upper virtual machine. The guest operating system and application in the virtual machine cannot perceive the existence of the real machine. The advantage of full virtualization is good compatibility, any type of operating system can be used on the virtual machine, the guest operating system does not need to be modified, and all software can run in the virtual machine; but its disadvantage is that the performance of hardware calls will be affected if the underlying hardware is completely simulated by software.

半虚拟化方式

Semi virtualization mode

半虚拟化方式(Para—virtualization)是指虚拟管理层对底层硬件进行部分模拟,把底层硬件平台的低级 API 用一套高级 API 来代替并提供给上层虚拟机,客户操作系统需要支持底层硬件。这样,虚拟机在运行时可减少用户模式(User Mode)和特权模式(Supervisor Mode)之间的切换,从而降低运行时的开销。例如,虚拟化软件 XEN 就是使用了半虚拟化方式。

Paravirtualization means that the virtual management layer partially simulates the underlying hardware, replacing the low-level API of the underlying hardware platform with a set of high-level API and providing it to the upper virtual machine. The client operating system needs to support the underlying hardware. In this way, the virtual machine can reduce the switching between user mode and supervisor mode at runtime, thus reducing the runtime overhead. For example, Xen, a virtualization software, uses semi virtualization.

服务器虚拟化的实现技术

Implementation technology of server virtualization

实现虚拟化的技术主要有纯软件的虚拟化技术和硬件辅助虚拟化技术两种。前者是当前主流的虚拟化技术,具有成熟的应用,硬件辅助虚拟化技术是今后的发展方向。

There are two kinds of virtualization technologies: pure software virtualization technology and hardware assisted virtualization technology. The former is the current mainstream virtualization technology with mature application, and hardware assisted virtualization technology is the future development direction.

软件虚拟化技术

Software virtualization technology

传统的计算机层次结构分为三层,即硬件层(Hardware Layer)、主机操作系统层(HostOS Layer)和应用层(Application Layer)。在这种结构中,主机操作系统统一控制、管理和分配整个计算机的硬件和软件资源,这种结构的缺点主要在于未能充分发挥 CPU 的性能,利用率较低;还有就是一台计算机无法满足同时运行多平台的应用需求,如果对于一种不同的应用程序采用一台独立的物理服务器,解决方案是增加服务器的数量,这无疑将增加投资成本。

The traditional computer hierarchy is divided into three layers: hardware layer, Hostos layer and application layer. In this structure, the host operating system uniformly controls, manages and distributes the hardware and software resources of the whole computer. The main disadvantage of this structure is that it fails to give full play to the CPU In addition, a computer can not meet the application requirements of running multiple platforms at the same time. If an independent physical server is adopted for a different application, the solution is to increase the number of servers, which will undoubtedly increase the investment cost.

服务器虚拟化技术采用纯软件的方法,就是在硬件层之上仍然安装被称为主机操作系统的系统,在其上部署虚拟机软件(Virtual Machine Software,VMS),根据实际应用需求,VMS 可以将物理计算机虚拟出多个分区,每一个分区称为一个虚拟机(Virtual Machine,VM)。虚拟机具有完整的计算机应用环境,包括硬件层(由 VMS 提供)、驱动接口层(由 VMS 提供)、操作系统(Guest OS Layer)及应用层(Applications),都是建立在计算机的应

Server virtualization technology adopts a pure software method, that is, the system called host operating system is still installed on the hardware layer, and the virtual machine software (VMS) is deployed on it. According to the actual application requirements, VMS can virtualize the physical computer into multiple partitions, and each partition is called a virtual machine (VM). Virtual machine has a complete computer application environment, including hardware layer (provided by VMS), driver interface layer (provided by VMS), operating system (guest OS layer) and application layer (Applications)

用环境上,属于用户级软件。这样用户可以“随心所欲”地安装应用程序。实现这种虚拟化技术关键在于虚拟机软件的可靠性。

It belongs to user level software. This allows users to install applications “as they please.”. The key to realize this virtualization technology is the reliability of virtual machine software.

对于一台独立的物理服务器,在这台服务器上安装操作系统,在操作系统安装相应的应用程序,这种传统架构是一台独立的物理服务器作为一种应用程序服务器使用。服务器虚拟化之后,一台独立物理服务器的资料被虚拟化为若干个独立的主机,这些主机可以单独安装其他的操作系统,在操作系统之上又可以分别安装各种不同的应用程序。

For an independent physical server, the operating system is installed on this server, and the corresponding applications are installed in the operating system. This traditional architecture is that an independent physical server is used as an application server. After server virtualization, the data of an independent physical server is virtualized into several independent hosts. These hosts can install other operating systems independently, and various applications can be installed on top of the operating system.

基于软件虚拟化技术实现的虚拟机软件主要有 VMware 的 Workstation、Microsoft 的 Hvper-V、Parallels 等,这些软件在近年来得到了迅速的推广和应用。

The virtual machine software based on software virtualization technology mainly includes vmware workstation, Microsoft’s hvper-v, parallels and so on. These software have been rapidly promoted and applied in recent years.

虚拟化技术的特点

Characteristics of virtualization technology

由于虚拟化技术将物理服务器进行了抽象,形成逻辑上的服务器,因而有助于我们更好管理服务器的计算资源,与传统应用相比.有以下四大突出的特征。

Because Virtualization Technology Abstracts physical servers into logical servers, it helps us manage the computing resources of servers better. Compared with traditional applications, virtualization technology has the following four prominent features.

(1)分区:将物理服务器进行虚拟化后。使得在一个物理服务器上同时运行多操作系统,每个操作系统单独运行在一台虚拟机,通过在多个虚机之间划分系统资源以满足使用需求,显然,这将提高服务器的利用效率。

(1) Partition: after virtualizing the physical server. It makes multiple operating systems run on a physical server at the same time, and each operating system runs on a single virtual machine. By dividing the system resources among multiple virtual machines to meet the use requirements, obviously, this will improve the utilization efficiency of the server.

(2)隔离:由于在硬件层实现了虚拟机之间的故障和安全隔离,因而因操作系统或应用软件带来的安全问题能够更好地进行隔离,更好地保证安全性。而且通过高级资源调控还能动态地保证不同虚机的性能。

(2) Isolation: because of the fault and security isolation between virtual machines in the hardware layer, the security problems caused by the operating system or application software can be better isolated to ensure the security. Moreover, the performance of different virtual machines can be guaranteed dynamically through advanced resource control.

(3)封装:运行的每个虚机都被封装为文件,这样在移动和复制虚机时就如同移动和复制文件一样简单,提高管理和部署的便利。

(3) Encapsulation: each running virtual machine is encapsulated as a file, which makes moving and copying virtual machines as simple as moving and copying files, and improves the convenience of management and deployment.

(4)硬件独立性:虚拟机可以在异构硬件安装和移动,基于虚拟化技术,可以在 AMD 或 Intel 架构的服务器上进行不同操作系统的安装和移动,可以更好地整合现有的异构硬件资源来提高使用效率和节约投资。

(4) Hardware independence: virtual machine can be installed and moved in heterogeneous hardware. Based on virtualization technology, it can install and move different operating systems on AMD or Intel Architecture servers. It can better integrate the existing heterogeneous hardware resources to improve efficiency and save investment.


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