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【速搜问答】GPT是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-08-10) 551次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

全局唯一标识分区表(GPT)是指全局唯一标示磁盘分区表格式。它是可扩展固件接口EFI标准(被Intel用于替代个人计算机的BIOS)的一部分,被用于替代BIOS系统中的以32bits来存储逻辑块地址和大小信息的主引导记录(MBR)分区表。

Global unique identifier partition table (GPT) refers to the format of globally uniquely identified disk partition table. It is a part of the extensible firmware interface EFI standard (used by Intel to replace the BIOS of personal computers). It is used to replace the master boot record (MBR) partition table in BIOS system which stores address and size information of logical block with 32 bits.

全局唯一标识分区表(GUID Partition Table,缩写:GPT)是指全局唯一标示磁盘分区表格式。它是可扩展固件接口(EFI)标准(被 Intel 用于替代个人计算机的 BIOS)的一部分,被用于替代 BIOS 系统中的以 32bits 来存储逻辑块地址和大小信息的主引导记录(MBR)分区表。

The globally unique partition table (GPT) refers to the globally unique partition table format. It is a part of the extensible firmware interface (EFI) standard (used by Intel to replace the BIOS of personal computers). It is used to replace the master boot record (MBR) partition table in BIOS system which stores address and size information of logical block with 32 bits.

对于那些扇区为 512 字节的磁盘,MBR 分区表不支持容量大于 2.2TB(2.2 ×1012字节)的分区,然而,一些硬盘制造商(诸如希捷和西部数据)注意到这个局限性,并且将他们的容量较大的磁盘升级到 4KB 的扇区,这意味着 MBR 的有效容量上限提升到 16 TiB。

For 512 byte sector disks, MBR partition table does not support partitions larger than 2.2tb (2.2 × 1012 bytes). However, some hard disk manufacturers (such as Seagate and Western data) have noticed this limitation and upgraded their larger disks to 4KB sectors, which means that the maximum effective capacity of MBR is raised to 16 TiB.

这个看似“正确的”解决方案,在临时地降低人们对改进磁盘分配表的需求的同时,也给市场带来关于在有较大的块(block)的设备上从 BIOS 启动时,如何最佳的划分磁盘分区的困惑。GPT 分配 64bits 给逻辑块地址,因而使得最大分区大小在 264-1 个扇区成为可能。对于每个扇区大小为 512 字节的磁盘,那意味着可以有 9.4ZB(9.4×1012字节)或 8 ZiB 个 512 字节(9,444,732,965,739,290,426,880 字节或 18,446,744,073,709,551,615(264-1)个扇区×512(29)字节每扇区)。

This seemingly “right” solution, while temporarily reducing the demand for improving the disk allocation table, also brings confusion to the market about how to partition the disk best when booting from BIOS on devices with large blocks. GPT allocates 64 bits to logical block addresses, which makes it possible to have a maximum partition size of 264-1 sectors. For a disk with a sector size of 512 bytes, that means there can be 9.4zb (9.4 × 1012 bytes) or 8 zib 512 bytes (9444732965739290426880 bytes or 18446744073709551615 (264-1) sectors × 512 (29) bytes per sector).

截止至 2010 年,大多数操作系统对 GPT 均有所支持,尽管包括 Mac OS X 和 Windows 在内的一些仅支持在 EFI 基础上自 GPT 分区启动。

As of 2010, most operating systems support GPT, although some, including Mac OS X and windows, only support booting from GPT partitions on EFI basis.

特点

characteristic

在 MBR 硬盘中,分区信息直接存储于主引导记录(MBR)中(主引导记录中还存储着系统的引导程序)。但在 GPT 硬盘中,分区表的位置信息储存在 GPT 头中。但出于兼容性考虑,硬盘的第一个扇区仍然用作 MBR,之后才是 GPT 头。

In MBR hard disk, the partition information is directly stored in the master boot record (MBR). But in GPT hard disk, the location information of partition table is stored in GPT header. However, for compatibility reasons, the first sector of the hard disk is still used as MBR, followed by the GPT head.

跟现代的 MBR 一样,GPT 也使用逻辑区块地址(LBA)取代了早期的 CHS 寻址方式。传统 MBR 信息存储于 LBA 0,GPT 头存储于 LBA 1,接下来才是分区表本身。64 位 Windows 操作系统使用 16,384 字节(或 32 扇区)作为 GPT 分区表,接下来的 LBA 34 是硬盘上第一个分区的开始。

Like modern MBR, GPT uses logical block address (LBA) to replace the early CHS addressing mode. Traditional MBR information is stored in LBA 0, GPT header is stored in LBA 1, and then partition table itself. The 64 bit windows operating system uses 16384 bytes (or 32 sectors) as the GPT partition table. The next LBA 34 is the beginning of the first partition on the hard disk.

苹果公司曾经警告说:[3]“不要假定所有设备的块大小都是 512 字节。”一些现代的存储设备如固态硬盘可能使用 1024 字节的块,一些磁光盘(MO)可能使用 2048 字节的扇区(但是磁光盘通常是不进行分区的)。一些硬盘生产商在计划生产 4096 字节一个扇区的硬盘,但截至 2010 年初,这种新硬盘使用固件对操作系统伪装成 512 字节一个扇区。

Apple once warned, “don’t assume that the block size of all devices is 512 bytes.” Some modern storage devices, such as solid-state drives, may use 1024 byte blocks, and some magneto-optical disks (MO) may use 2048 byte sectors (but magneto-optical disks are usually not partitioned). Some hard disk manufacturers are planning to make 4096 byte sector hard disks, but by the beginning of 2010, the new hard disk used firmware to disguise the operating system as 512 byte sector.

使用英特尔架构的苹果机也使用 GPT。

Apple computers using Intel Architecture also use GPT.

为了减少分区表损坏的风险,GPT 在硬盘最后保存了一份分区表的副本。

To reduce the risk of partition table corruption, GPT keeps a copy of the partition table at the end of the hard disk.

分区方法

Partition method

GPT 分区的一大优势就是针对不同的数据建立不同的分区,同时为不同的分区创建不同的权限。就如其名字一样,GPT 能够保证磁盘分区的 GUID 唯一性,所以 GPT 不允许将整个硬盘进行复制,从而保证了磁盘内数据的安全性。想比与我们目前通常使用的 MBR 分区,GPT 本身就有着得天独厚的优势。

One of the advantages of GPT partition is to create different partitions for different data and create different permissions for different partitions. Just like its name, GPT can guarantee the uniqueness of the Guid of the disk partition, so GPT does not allow the entire hard disk to be copied, thus ensuring the security of the data in the disk. Compared with MBR partition, GPT has unique advantages.

GPT 分区的创建或者更改其实并不麻烦,但是一块硬盘如果想从 MBR 分区转换成 GPT 分区的话,就会丢失硬盘内的所有数据。所以我们在更改硬盘分区格式之前需要先将硬盘备份,然后使用 Windows 自带的磁盘管理功能或者使用 DiskGenius 等磁盘管理软件就可以轻松地将硬盘转换成 GPT(GUID)格式,转换完成后,我们就可以真正开始系统的安装过程了。

It is not troublesome to create or change the GPT partition, but if a hard disk wants to convert from MBR partition to GPT partition, it will lose all the data in the hard disk. Therefore, before changing the partition format of the hard disk, we need to back up the hard disk, and then use the disk management function of windows or disk management software such as diskgenius to easily convert the hard disk to GPT (GUID) format. After the conversion, we can really start the system installation process.


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