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【速搜问答】Windows NT是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-08-06) 518次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

Microsoft Windows NT(New Technology)是Microsoft(微软)于1993年推出的面向工作站、网络服务器和大型计算机的网络操作系统,也可做PC操作系统。 Microsoft Windows NT(New Technology)是 Microsoft(微软)于 1993 年推出的面向工作站、网络服务器和大型计算机的网络操作系统,也可做 PC 操作系统。

Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology) is a network operating system for workstations, network servers and large computers launched by Microsoft in 1993. It can also be used as PC operating system. Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology) is a network operating system for workstations, network servers and large computers launched by Microsoft in 1993. It can also be used as PC operating system.

它与通信服务紧密集成,基于 OS/2 NT 基础编制。OS/2 由微软和 IBM 联合研制,分为微软的 Microsoft OS/2 NT 与 IBM 的 IBM OS/2。协作后来不欢而散,IBM 继续向市场提供先前的 OS/2 版本,微软则把自己的 OS/2 NT 的名称改为 Windows NT,即第一代的 Windows NT 3.1。

It is closely integrated with communication services and is based on OS / 2 NT. OS / 2 is jointly developed by Microsoft and IBM, which is divided into Microsoft OS / 2 nt of Microsoft and IBM OS / 2 of IBM. IBM continued to provide the market with the previous version of OS / 2, while Microsoft changed the name of its OS / 2 nt to Windows NT, that is, the first generation of Windows NT 3.1.

微软公司从数字设备公司(Digital Equipment Corporation)雇佣了一批人员来开发这个新系统。“NT”所指的便是“新技术”(New Technology)之意。“NT”除了可以解释为“新技术”之外,有另一个版本指“NT”是来自微软在 i860 上开发 NT 时所使用的模拟器“N10”(N-Ten)。

Microsoft hired a team of people from Digital Equipment Corporation to develop the new system. “NT” means “new technology”. In addition to being interpreted as “new technology”, there is another version of “NT” which refers to the simulator “N10” (n-ten) used by Microsoft to develop nt on i860.

发展历史

History of development

产品背景

Product background

OS/2 由微软和 IBM 联合研制,分为微软的 Microsoft OS/2 NT 与 IBM 的 IBM OS/2。协作后来不欢而散,IBM 继续向市场提供先前的 OS/2 版本,微软则把自己的 OS/2 NT 的名称改为 Windows NT,即第一代的 Windows NT 3.1。

OS / 2 is jointly developed by Microsoft and IBM, which is divided into Microsoft OS / 2 nt of Microsoft and IBM OS / 2 of IBM. IBM continued to provide the market with the previous version of OS / 2, while Microsoft changed the name of its OS / 2 nt to Windows NT, that is, the first generation of Windows NT 3.1.

开发历程

Development history

Windows NT 3.1 是 Microsoft 的 Windows NT 操作系统的第一代产品,可运行在 Intelx86、DEC Alpha 和 MIPSR4000 的 CPU 上。

Windows NT 3.1 is the first generation product of Microsoft’s Windows NT operating system, which can run on Intel x86, Dec alpha and mipsr4000 CPU.

其主要应用于服务器和商业桌面,于 1993 年 7 月 27 日诞生之日起,强大的 Windows 图形用户界面,支持多系统的运行环境,对称的处理能力就深受广大用户的喜爱。但由于安全性不高的问题,1994 年 Microsoft 又陆续推出了 Windows NT 3.5、Windows NT 3.5x 系列,这两个系列限制了可同时运行的网络任务数量并省略了一些服务器软件的运行。Windows NT 3.5 系列可以用来构建一个完整的网络服务器。在进一步改善了安全性和稳定性的同时,其中又加入了支持 Open GL 显卡的标准。在界面上,Windows NT 3.5x 的界面仍然和原 Windows NT 3.1 的界面保持一致,但从这个版本开始,Windows NT 系列有了中文版。这表明 Windows NT 操作系统正式进入中国市场。

It is mainly used in server and commercial desktop. Since its birth on July 27, 1993, the powerful windows graphical user interface supports the multi system operating environment, and its symmetrical processing ability is deeply loved by the majority of users. However, due to the problem of low security, Microsoft launched Windows NT 3.5 and windows NT 3.5x Series in 1994. These two series limit the number of network tasks that can be run at the same time and omit the running of some server software. Windows NT 3.5 series can be used to build a complete network server. In addition to further improving the security and stability, the standard supporting open GL graphics card is added. On the interface, the interface of Windows NT 3.5x is still the same as that of the original Windows NT 3.1. However, since this version, the Chinese version of Windows NT Series has been available. This shows that the Windows NT operating system has officially entered the Chinese market.

版本设置

Version settings

Windows NT Server

Windows NT Server

专为服务器进行了优化,配置要求较高。

It is specially optimized for the server with high configuration requirements.

最多支持 32 个处理器。

Up to 32 processors are supported.

可以充当网络服务器,可无限制连入客户机,完成繁重的网络任务。

It can act as a network server, and can connect to the client without restriction to complete the heavy network tasks.

最多可支持多达 256 个远程客户存取。

Support up to 256 remote customer access.

支持 Macintosh 文件及打印,具备磁盘容错功能。

Support Macintosh file and print, with disk fault tolerance.

Windows NT 工作站

Windows NT workstation

硬件适合个人用户,当工作站上有如 CAD/CAM 等高级应用要求时选用。

The hardware is suitable for individual users and can be selected when there are advanced application requirements such as CAD / CAM on the workstation.

仅可支持 2 个处理器。

Only 2 processors are supported.

充当网络服务器,可以连入不超过 10 个客户机,完成有限网络服务功能。

As a network server, it can connect no more than 10 clients to complete the limited network service function.

只能支持一个远程客户存取。

Only one remote client access is supported.

不支持 Macintosh 文件及打印,不具备磁盘容错功能。

Does not support Macintosh files and printing, does not have disk fault tolerance.

系统功能

system function

安全保障

Security

操作系统核心在 Windows NT 5.0 后引入 Super Fetch 技术,用户可以把经常使用的程序预存入内存,后台程序便不会跳过其夺取较高的运行等级,用户也就不用担心突然一个后台程序运作后 CPU 的使用率达到 90%以上。当在用户模式下运行硬件驱动时,驱动出现故障后,系统会自动运行最近的一次正确操作,恢复数据。用户不用重装驱动。

The core of operating system introduces super fetch technology after Windows NT 5.0. Users can pre store the frequently used programs in memory, and the background programs will not skip them to capture higher running levels. Users will not have to worry about the CPU utilization rate of more than 90% after a background program suddenly runs. When the hardware driver is running in user mode, when the driver fails, the system will automatically run the latest correct operation to recover the data. Users don’t have to reload the driver.

网络通畅

The network is unobstructed

操作系统核心在引入 IPv4 支持后,防火墙的实用性和效率有了明显提高,优化了 TCP/IP 模块,用户界面使用 Cable Card 后大幅提升了网络连接的速度。

After the introduction of IPv4 support to the core of the operating system, the practicability and efficiency of the firewall have been significantly improved, the TCP / IP module has been optimized, and the speed of network connection has been greatly improved after the use of cable card in the user interface.

媒体稳定

Media stability

操作系统核心在 Windows NT 6.0 后将音频与显示音频驱动的工作模式改为在用户模式下运行,提高了音频的速度、保真度、稳定性。在 Vista 系统以后,更是内置了 Direct X10,显卡的画质和速度得到了革命性的提升,引入了 Aero Glass、新的用户界面、功能更加强大的窗口支持、3D 显示功能。在提高工作效率的同时,显卡也成为共享的一个资源,它也负责 Windows 操作系统的加速工作,使得窗口切换更加顺畅。高清媒体时代已经来临。

After Windows NT 6.0, the core of operating system changed the working mode of audio and display audio driver to user mode, which improved the speed, fidelity and stability of audio. After vista system, direct X10 is built-in. The image quality and speed of the video card have been improved revolutionary. Aero Glass, new user interface, more powerful window support and 3D display function are introduced. At the same time, the graphics card has become a shared resource. It is also responsible for the acceleration of Windows operating system, which makes the window switching more smoothly. The era of HD media has come.

软件集成

software integration

在操作系统发展的数十年间,不断更新的软件逐渐取代系统自带的还原功能,内置数据备份的工具越来越强大,在 Vista 操作系统上 Outlook 升级为了 Windows Mail、Windows Premium Clock、Movie Maker、Windows Media Player11 等成为 Windows 操作系统不可或缺的一部分。

In the decades of development of the operating system, constantly updated software has gradually replaced the restore function of the system, and the built-in data backup tools have become more and more powerful. On Vista operating system, the upgrade of outlook to Windows Mail, windows premium clock, movie maker, Windows Media Player 11, etc. has become an indispensable part of Windows operating system.

防火墙原理

Firewall principle

Windows NT 内核中存在着一种文件驱动程序,这种程序的主要作用就是为用户通过非易失性存储介质存储数据提供服务。通过对文件驱动程序的开发实现扩展功能是 NT 中 I/O 管理器的一大特色,I/O 管理器支持分层驱动程序模型,病毒防火墙实现拦截文件的原理如下:通过开发驱动程序并插入到结构层中,从而进行文件拦截。这种驱动文件亦称座过滤驱动文件。

There is a file driver in Windows NT kernel. The main function of this program is to provide services for users to store data through nonvolatile storage media. One of the features of I / O Manager in NT is to realize the extended function by developing the file driver. The I / O Manager supports the hierarchical driver model. The principle of virus firewall to intercept files is as follows: the file is intercepted by developing the driver and inserting it into the structure layer. This kind of driver file is also called filter driver file.

总的来说,病毒防火墙就是利用这种过滤驱动文件来实现对计算机系统保护的。譬如,当用户程序利用 CreateFile 函数对已有文件夹进行打开或者建立一个新文件时,病毒防火墙能够在过程中对 Create File 的请求包(IRP)进行有效截获,从而对文件包中的病毒进行检测,以期保证用户安全的对文件进行使用。过滤驱动程序的工作流程如下:首先对文件的类型进行检查,从而判断该文件是否属于携带病毒类型的文件,对于那些存在病毒概率较小的文件,会进一步传递到文件驱动程序。在过程中,如果 IRP 返回了“文件打开产生错误”的指令,为了避免检测中心做了不必要的工作,病毒防火墙便会选择只把结果返回给 I/O 管理器;如果返回指令表明该文件已被成功地打开,文件系统中的过滤驱动程序会发送一个(或多个)ReadFile 的 IRP 给文件系统驱动程序,从而使病毒防火墙对文件进行放行,将文件的内容完整的传递给客户。病毒检测器需要实时注意 IRP 的工作状态,只有当 IRP 完成任务后,病毒检测器才能发挥功效。作为检测病毒的文件过滤驱动程序,还需要维护应用程序层传来的病毒特征代码库,因为病毒特征代码库不仅可以帮助反病毒引擎提高检测准确性,还能够提高检测的效率。

In general, the firewall is used to protect the files. For example, when the user program uses the CreateFile function to open an existing folder or create a new file, the virus firewall can effectively intercept the request package (IRP) of create file in the process, so as to detect the virus in the file package, so as to ensure that the user can use the file safely. The workflow of the filter driver is as follows: firstly, the type of the file is checked to determine whether the file belongs to the file with virus type. For those files with low probability of virus, it will be further transmitted to the file driver. In the process, if the IRP returns the instruction of “error caused by file opening”, in order to avoid unnecessary work done by the detection center, the virus firewall will choose to only return the result to the I / O Manager; if the return instruction indicates that the file has been successfully opened, the filter driver in the file system will send one (or more) IRP of readfile To the file system driver, so that the virus firewall to release the file, the content of the file complete transfer to the customer. Virus detector needs to pay attention to the working state of IRP in real time. Only when IRP completes the task can the virus detector play its role. As a file filter driver for virus detection, it is also necessary to maintain the virus feature code library from the application layer, because the virus feature code library can not only help the anti-virus engine improve the detection accuracy, but also improve the detection efficiency.

系统结构

System structure

Windows NT 操作系统的用户态包括能够传递 I/O 请求给适当内核态下的软件驱动程序的子系统。Windows NT 操作系统的用户态又包括了环境子系统(在不同操作系统类型下执行应用程序)和集成子系统(用于执行一些系统相关的函数)两个子系统。位于硬件抽象层与执行体之间的 WindowsNT 的核心态部分提供了多处理器同步,线程与中断调度与分派,自陷处理,异常分派。其还负责在启动时初始化驱动程序。驱动程序按照层数可分为三层:高层驱动程序、中层驱动程序、低层驱动程序。

The user mode of Windows NT operating system includes subsystems that can pass I / O requests to software drivers in appropriate kernel mode. The user mode of Windows NT operating system includes two subsystems: environment subsystem (executing application programs under different operating system types) and integration subsystem (used to execute some system related functions). The core state part of Windows NT, located between the hardware abstraction layer and the executor, provides multiprocessor synchronization, thread and interrupt scheduling and dispatching, self trapping processing and exception dispatching. It is also responsible for initializing the driver at startup. The driver can be divided into three layers according to the number of layers: high-level driver, middle-level driver and low-level driver.

现如今,Microsoft 在经过几十年对 Windows NT 的研究后,发布的 Windows Azure 的云操作系统,使 Microsoft 像今天主宰个人操作系统市场一样,在未来的云操作系统市场中占据了主导地位,并为未来云计算之战抓取战略筹码。云计算模式的应用已经深入各行各业,云时代即将来临。对于操作系统来说,一个操作系统的云计算水平,则决定了这个操作系统的未来,未来的云时代需要一种基于 Web 的操作系统,这种系统依靠分布在各地的数据中心提供运行平台,而平台的搭建,则应使用一个具有强大计算功能的终端,通过互联网对这种架构模式的搭建,使得在未来的我们在世界各地可以依靠一个显示屏、一个鼠标和一个键盘就可以实现今天终端能实现的一切功能。当然,这种情况是需要更加快捷、灵敏的 Windows NT 操作系统才能实现的,也就是说 Windows NT 操作系统的发展将影响我们未来的生活。

Now, after decades of research on Windows NT, Microsoft released the cloud operating system of windows azure, which makes Microsoft occupy a leading position in the future cloud operating system market as it dominates the personal operating system market today, and grabs strategic chips for the future battle of cloud computing. The application of cloud computing mode has been in-depth in all walks of life, and the cloud era is coming. For the operating system, the cloud computing level of an operating system determines the future of the operating system. The future cloud era needs a web-based This kind of system relies on the distributed data center to provide the operation platform, and the construction of the platform should use a terminal with powerful computing function. Through the construction of this architecture mode through the Internet, we can rely on a display screen, a mouse and a keyboard to achieve what the terminal can achieve today Cut function. Of course, this situation needs a more rapid and sensitive Windows NT operating system to achieve, that is to say, the development of Windows NT operating system will affect our future life.

系统内核

system kernel

Windows NT 内核是微软公司推出的一款面向网络应用的操作系统,在和通信技术密切融合的基础上提供打印等各种附加服务,由于其非常周到的人性化服务,得到了许多用户的亲睐,具有广泛的市场。

Windows NT kernel is a network application oriented operating system launched by Microsoft. It provides printing and other additional services on the basis of close integration with communication technology. Due to its very considerate and humanized service, it has been favored by many users and has a wide market.

Windows NT 内核为 32 位操作系统,具有多重引导功能,并支持兼容;在线程操作方面也很有特色,具备多线程多任务的特点外,还具有抢先式的功能,为用户提供了多种多样地选择;采用 SMP 技术,并支持多处理器系统;支持 CISC(如 Intel 系统)和 RISC(如 PowerPC、R4400 等)多种硬件平台;提供安全存取控制及容错能力,可与各种网络操作系统协调合作,如:UNIX、Novel。Windows NT 内核的意义在于将用户模式和内核模式分离,这可使得系统更安全,稳定。

Windows NT kernel is a 32-bit operating system, which has multiple boot functions and supports compatibility. It also has features in thread operation, including multithreading and multitasking, and preemptive function, which provides users with a variety of choices. It adopts SMP technology and supports multiprocessor systems, and supports CISC (such as Intel system) and RISC (such as Intel system) PowerPC, r4400, etc.) provide secure access control and fault tolerance, and can cooperate with various network operating systems, such as UNIX and Novell. The significance of Windows NT kernel is to separate user mode from kernel mode, which can make the system more secure and stable.


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