Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a process in which an enterprise uses the corresponding information technology and Internet technology to coordinate the interaction between the enterprise and the customer in sales, marketing and service in order to improve its management mode and provide customers with innovative and personalized customer interaction and service. The ultimate goal is to attract new customers, retain old customers and increase the market.
客户关系管理（CRM，Customer Relationship Management）是指企业为提高核心竞争力，利用相应的信息技术以及互联网技术协调企业与顾客间在销售、营销和服务上的交互，从而提升其管理方式，向客户提供创新式的个性化的客户交互和服务的过程。其最终目标是吸引新客户、保留老客户以及将已有客户转为忠实客户，增加市场。
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a process in which an enterprise coordinates the interaction of sales, marketing and service between enterprises and customers by using corresponding information technology and Internet technology in order to improve its core competitiveness, so as to improve its management mode and provide customers with innovative personalized customer interaction and service. Its ultimate goal is to attract new customers, retain old customers, and turn existing customers into loyal customers and increase the market.
The emphasis on the application of customer relationship management comes from the concept of long-term customer management, which considers that customers are the most important assets of enterprises, and the enterprise information support system must be developed under the requirements of giving customers information autonomy.
成功的客户自主权将产生竞争优势并提高客户忠诚度最终提高公司的利润率。客户关系管理的方法在注重 4p 关键要素的同时，反映出在营销体系中各种交叉功能的组合，其重点在于赢得客户。这样，营销重点从客户需求进一步转移到客户保持上并且保证企业把适当的时间、资金和管理资源直接集中在这两个关键任务上。
Successful customer autonomy will generate competitive advantage and improve customer loyalty, and ultimately improve the company’s profit margin. The method of customer relationship management not only pays attention to 4P key elements, but also reflects the combination of various cross functions in the marketing system, and its focus is to win customers. In this way, the marketing focus is further shifted from customer demand to customer retention, and the enterprise can ensure that the appropriate time, capital and management resources are directly concentrated on these two key tasks.
1999 年，Gartner Group Inc 公司提出了 CRM 概念（Customer Relationship Management 客户关系管理）。Gartner Group Inc 在早些提出的 ERP 概念中，强调对供应链进行整体管理。而客户作为供应链中的一环，为什么要针对它单独提出一个 CRM 概念呢？
In 1999, Gartner Group Inc put forward the concept of CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Gartner Group Inc. emphasizes the overall management of the supply chain in the ERP concept proposed earlier. As a part of the supply chain, why do customers propose a CRM concept for it?
原因之一在于，在 ERP 的实际应用中人们发现，由于 ERP 系统本身功能方面的局限性，也由于 IT 技术发展阶段的局限性，ERP 系统并没有很好地实现对供应链下游（客户端）的管理，针对 3C 因素中的客户多样性，ERP 并没有给出良好的解决办法。另一方面，到 90 年代末期，互联网的应用越来越普及，CTI、客户信息处理技术（如数据仓库、商业智能、知识发现等技术）得到了长足的发展。结合新经济的需求和新技术的发展，Gartner Group Inc 提出了 CRM 概念。从 90 年代末期开始，CRM 市场一直处于一种爆炸性增长的状态。
One of the reasons is that in the practical application of ERP, due to the limitations of ERP system itself and the limitations of IT technology development stage, ERP system does not realize the management of the downstream (client) of the supply chain very well. In view of the diversity of customers in 3C factors, ERP does not give a good solution. On the other hand, by the end of 1990s, the application of Internet was more and more popular, and CTI and customer information processing technology (such as data warehouse, business intelligence, knowledge discovery and other technologies) had made great progress. Combined with the demand of new economy and the development of new technology, Gartner Group Inc put forward the concept of CRM. Since the late 1990s, CRM market has been in a state of explosive growth.
客户关系管理简称 CRM（Customer Relationship Management）。
Customer relationship management is called CRM (Customer Relationship Management).
CRM 概念引入中国已有数年，其字面意思是客户关系管理，但其深层的内涵却有许多的解释。以下摘录国外研究 CRM 的几位专家对 CRM 的不同定义，通过这些定义让我们对 CRM 有一个初步的认识。从字义上看，它是指企业用 CRM 来管理与客户之间的关系。CRM 是选择和管理有价值客户及其关系的一种商业策略，CRM 要求以客户为中心的商业哲学和企业文化来支持有效的市场营销、销售与服务流程。如果企业拥有正确的领导、策略和企业文化，CRM 应用将为企业实现有效的客户关系管理。
The concept of CRM has been introduced into China for several years. Its literal meaning is customer relationship management, but its deep connotation has many explanations. The following is an excerpt of the different definitions of CRM made by several experts studying CRM abroad. Through these definitions, we can have a preliminary understanding of CRM. From the literal sense, it refers to the enterprise uses CRM to manage the relationship with customers. CRM is a business strategy to select and manage valuable customers and their relationships. CRM requires customer-centered business philosophy and corporate culture to support effective marketing, sales and service processes. If the enterprise has the correct leadership, strategy and corporate culture, CRM application will achieve effective customer relationship management for the enterprise.
CRM 是一个获取、保持和增加可获利客户的方法和过程。CRM 既是一种崭新的、国际领先的、以客户为中心的企业管理理论、商业理念和商业运作模式，也是一种以信息技术为手段、有效提高企业收益、客户满意度、雇员生产力的具体软件和实现方法。
CRM is a method and process to acquire, maintain and increase profitable customers. CRM is not only a brand-new, internationally advanced and customer-oriented enterprise management theory, business philosophy and business operation mode, but also a specific software and implementation method to effectively improve enterprise income, customer satisfaction and employee productivity by means of information technology.
CRM 的实施目标就是通过全面提升企业业务流程的管理来降低企业成本，通过提供更快速和周到的优质服务来吸引和保持更多的客户。作为一种新型管理机制，CRM 极大地改善了企业与客户之间的关系，实施于企业的市场营销、销售、服务与技术支持等与客户相关的领域。
The implementation goal of CRM is to reduce the cost of enterprises by comprehensively improving the management of business processes, and attract and maintain more customers by providing faster and more thoughtful quality services. As a new management mechanism, CRM has greatly improved the relationship between enterprises and customers, which is implemented in the fields of marketing, sales, service and technical support.
随着 4G 移动网络的部署，CRM 已经进入了移动时代。移动 CRM 系统就是一个集 3G 移动技术、智能移动终端、VPN、身份认证、地理信息系统（GIS）、Webservice、商业智能等技术于一体的移动客户关系管理产品。移动 CRM 它将原有 CRM 系统上的客户资源管理、销售管理、客户服务管理、日常事务管理等功能迁移到手机。它既可以像一般的 CRM 产品一样，在公司的局域网里进行操作，也可以在员工外出时，通过手机进行操作。移动 CRM 主要实现了经常出差在外，以便随时随地掌握公司内部信息的所提供的手机版管理软件，客户只需下载手机版软件，然后安装在手机上就可以直接使用了，同时账户就用电脑申请的组织名和账户名就能直接使用该系统，这样客户不仅可以随时查看信息，而且也可以通过手机给公司内部人员下达工作指示，同时也可以使用平台所提供的所有功能了。
With the deployment of 4G mobile network, CRM has entered the mobile era. Mobile CRM system is a mobile customer relationship management product which integrates 3G mobile technology, intelligent mobile terminal, VPN, identity authentication, geographic information system (GIS), WebService, business intelligence and other technologies. Mobile CRM system can transfer the functions of customer resource management, sales management, customer service management and daily affairs management to mobile phones. It can not only operate in the LAN of the company like the general CRM products, but also can operate through the mobile phone when the employees go out. Mobile CRM It mainly realizes the mobile version management software provided by the company for frequent business trips, so as to grasp the internal information of the company anytime and anywhere. Customers only need to download the mobile version software, and then install it on the mobile phone. At the same time, the account can be directly used with the organization name and account name applied by the computer, so that customers can not only view the information at any time, but also can Through the mobile phone to the company’s internal staff to give work instructions, but also can use all the functions provided by the platform.
直到今天 ，云计算的全球化使得传统 CRM 软件已逐渐被 Web CRM（又称为“在线 CRM”、“托管型 CRM”和“按需 CRM”）超越的杰出代表。越来越多的客户倾向于采用 Web 来管理 CRM 等业务应用程序。
Until today, the globalization of cloud computing makes the traditional CRM software has been gradually surpassed by web CRM (also known as “online CRM”, “managed CRM” and “on-demand CRM”). More and more customers tend to use the web to manage business applications such as CRM.
作为解决方案（Solution）的客户关系管理（CRM），它集合了当今最新的信息技术，它们包括 Internet 和电子商务、多媒体技术、数据仓库和数据挖掘、专家系统和人工智能、呼叫中心等等。作为一个应用软件的客户关系管理（CRM），凝聚了市场营销的管理理念。市场营销、销售管理、客户关怀、服务和支持构成了 CRM 软件的基石。
As a solution, customer relationship management (CRM) integrates the latest information technology, including Internet and e-commerce, multimedia technology, data warehouse and data mining, expert system and artificial intelligence, call center and so on. As an application software, customer relationship management (CRM) embodies the management concept of marketing. Marketing, sales management, customer care, service and support constitute the cornerstone of CRM software.
To sum up, customer relationship management (CRM) has three meanings
(1) It is embodied in the guiding ideology and concept of new state enterprise management
(2) It is an innovative enterprise management mode and operation mechanism
(3) It is the sum of management methods and application solutions of information technology, software and hardware system integration in enterprise management.
What is CRM
最早提出该概念的 Gartner Group 认为：所谓的客户关系管理就是为企业提供全方位的管理视角；赋予企业更完善的客户交流能力，最大化客户的收益率。
Gartner Group, the first to put forward the concept, believes that the so-called customer relationship management is to provide enterprises with a comprehensive management perspective, give enterprises more perfect customer communication ability, and maximize customer profitability.
一、CRM 是一项营商策略，透过选择和管理客户达至最大的长期价值。CRM 需要用以客户为中心的营商哲学和文化来支持有效的市场推广、营销和服务过程。企业只要具备了合适的领导、策略和文化，应用 CRM 可促成具效益的客户关系管理。
1、 CRM is a business strategy to maximize long-term value by selecting and managing customers. CRM needs a customer-centered business philosophy and culture to support effective marketing, marketing and service processes. As long as an enterprise has the right leadership, strategy and culture, the application of CRM can promote effective customer relationship management.
二、CRM 是关于发展和推广营商策略和支持科技以填补企业在获取、增长和保留客户方面的缺口。它可为企业做什么？CRM 改善资产回报，在此，资产是指客户和潜在客户基础。
2、 CRM is about developing and promoting business strategy and supporting technology to fill the gap in acquiring, growing and retaining customers. What can it do for enterprises? CRM improves return on assets, where assets refer to the customer and potential customer base.
3、 CRM is a term used in the information industry. It refers to the methods, software and Internet facilities that help enterprises to manage customer relationships in an organized way. For example, an enterprise builds a customer database that fully describes relationships. Therefore, management, sales staff, service providers and even customers can obtain information, provide products and services that meet the needs of customers, remind customers of service requirements and know that customers have purchased other products.
四、CRM 是一种基于 Internet 的应用系统。它通过对企业业务流程的重组来整合用户信息资源，以更有效的方法来管理客户关系，在企业内部实现信息和资源的共享，从而降低企业运营成本，为客户提供更经济、快捷、周到的产品和服务，保持和吸引更多的客户，以求最终达到企业利润最大化的目的。
4、 CRM is an application system based on Internet. It integrates user information resources through the reorganization of enterprise business process, manages customer relationship in a more effective way, realizes the sharing of information and resources within the enterprise, so as to reduce the operating cost of the enterprise, provide customers with more economic, fast and thoughtful products and services, maintain and attract more customers, so as to achieve the ultimate goal of maximizing enterprise profits.
五、CRM 是 Customer Relationship Management（客户关系管理）的缩写，它是一项综合的 IT 技术，也是一种新的运作模式，它源于“以客户为中心”的新型商业模式，是一种旨在改善企业与客户关系的新型管理机制。是一项企业经营战略，企业据此赢得客户，并且留住客户，让客户满意。通过技术手段增强客户关系，并进而创造价值，最终提高利润增长的上限和底线，是客户关系管理的焦点问题。当然 CRM 系统是否能够真正发挥其应用的功效，还取决于企业是否真正理解了 ” 以客户为中心 ” 的 CRM 理念，这一理念是否贯彻到了企业的业务流程中，是否真正提高了用户满意度等等。
5、 CRM is the abbreviation of customer relationship management (CRM). It is a comprehensive IT technology and a new operation mode. It originates from the new business model of “customer centered”, and is a new management mechanism aimed at improving the relationship between enterprises and customers. Is an enterprise management strategy, the enterprise wins the customer, and retains the customer, lets the customer satisfaction. It is the focus of customer relationship management to enhance customer relationship through technical means, create value, and ultimately improve the upper and lower limit of profit growth. Of course, whether the CRM system can really play the role of its application depends on whether the enterprise really understands the CRM concept of “customer-oriented”, whether this concept is implemented in the business process of the enterprise, whether it really improves the user satisfaction, etc.
6、 Customer Relationship Management (CRM): in order to improve the core competitiveness, achieve the goal of competition and rapid growth, the enterprise establishes the customer-centered development strategy, and on this basis carries out all the business processes required by judging, selecting, striving for, developing and maintaining customers; it is the enterprise focusing on the customer relationship, through the systematic customer research The practice of optimizing enterprise organization system and business process, improving customer satisfaction and loyalty, and improving enterprise efficiency and profit level is also the advanced information technology, software and hardware, optimization management methods and solutions created and used by enterprises in the process of continuously improving all business processes of customer relationship and ultimately realizing the goal of electronic and automatic operation the sum.
七、CRM 是 Customer Relationship Management 的简写，即客户关系管理。CRM 的主要含义就是通过对客户详细资料的深入分析，来提高客户满意程度，从而提高企业的竞争力的一种手段。客户关系是指围绕客户生命周期发生、发展的信息归集。客户关系管理的核心是客户价值管理，通过“一对一”营销原则，满足不同价值客户的个性化需求，提高客户忠诚度和保有率，实现客户价值持续贡献，从而全面提升企业盈利能力。
7、 CRM is the abbreviation of customer relationship management, namely customer relationship management. The main meaning of CRM is to improve the degree of customer satisfaction through in-depth analysis of customer details, so as to improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Customer relationship refers to the information collection around the occurrence and development of customer life cycle. The core of customer relationship management is customer value management. Through the “one-to-one” marketing principle, it can meet the personalized needs of different value customers, improve customer loyalty and retention rate, realize continuous contribution of customer value, and comprehensively improve the profitability of enterprises.
它不仅仅是一个软件，它是方法论、软件和 IT 能力综合，是商业策略。
It’s not just a software, it’s a combination of methodology, software and it capabilities, a business strategy.
In China, when an enterprise begins to pay attention to customer relationship management, it is often accompanied by the adjustment of business process. By introducing advanced marketing management concepts, process systems and automation tools, the strategic objectives of an enterprise can be achieved.
客户关系管理的工具一般简称为 CRM 软件，实施起来有一定的风险，超过半数的企业在系统实施一段时间之后将软件束之高阁。
CRM software is generally referred to as CRM software for short. It has certain risks when it is implemented. More than half of enterprises put the software on the shelf after the system has been implemented for a period of time.
From the software focus, CRM software can be divided into two categories: operational and analytical, of course, there are both. The operation type pays more attention to the business process and information record, and provides convenient operation and Humanized Interface; while the analytical type often mines and analyzes the data based on a large number of enterprise daily data to find out the characteristics of customers, products and services, so as to modify the enterprise’s product strategy and market strategy.
From the technical level of software