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【速搜问答】静电耳机是什么

问答 admin 2个月前 (08-03) 53次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

静电耳机的原理是振膜处于变化的电场中,振膜极薄,可以精确到微米级,由高直流电压极化,极化所需的电能由交流电转化,也有电池供电的。

The principle of electrostatic earphone is that the diaphragm is in a changing electric field. The diaphragm is very thin and can be accurate to micron level. It is polarized by high DC voltage. The electric energy required for polarization is converted from alternating current and powered by battery.

静电耳机的原理是振膜处于变化的电场中,振膜极薄,可以精确到微米级,由高直流电压极化,极化所需的电能由交流电转化,也有电池供电的。

The principle of electrostatic earphone is that the diaphragm is in a changing electric field. The diaphragm is very thin and can be accurate to micron level. It is polarized by high DC voltage. The electric energy required for polarization is converted from alternating current and powered by battery.

静电耳机必须使用特殊的放大器将音频信号转化为数百伏的电压信号,用变压器连接到功率放大器的输出端也可以驱动静电耳机。

A special amplifier must be used to convert the audio signal into a voltage signal of hundreds of volts. A transformer connected to the output of the power amplifier can also drive the electrostatic earphone.

原理

principle

静电耳机的原理是振膜处于变化的电场中,振膜极薄,可以精确到微米级,由高直流电压极化,极化所需的电能由交流电转化,也有电池供电的。振膜悬挂在由两块固定的 金属板(定子)形成的静电场中,当音频信号加载到定子上时,静电场发生变化,驱动振膜振动。单定子也是可以驱动振膜的,但双定子的推挽形式失真更小。在电场力的驱动下带动振膜发声。

The principle of electrostatic earphone is that the diaphragm is in a changing electric field. The diaphragm is very thin and can be accurate to micron level. It is polarized by high DC voltage. The electric energy required for polarization is converted from alternating current and powered by battery. The diaphragm is suspended in the electrostatic field formed by two fixed metal plates (stator). When the audio signal is loaded on the stator, the electrostatic field changes and drives the diaphragm to vibrate. A single stator can also drive the diaphragm, but the double stator’s push-pull distortion is smaller. Driven by electric field force, the diaphragm is driven to produce sound.

特点

characteristic

静电耳机是很多朋友经常谈论的一个名词,静电这个称呼其实是指的发音单元的一种类型。实际上 90%的耳机都采用了动圈结构,所谓动圈是指处于永磁场中的线圈与振膜相连,线圈在信号电流驱动下带动振膜发声。动圈的技术也比较成熟,产品的价格相对于采静电技术的耳机要便宜很多。

Electrostatic earphone is a term that many friends often talk about. The term static electricity actually refers to a type of pronunciation unit. In fact, 90% of the earphones adopt the moving coil structure. The so-called moving coil refers to the coil in the permanent magnetic field connected with the diaphragm, and the coil drives the diaphragm to produce sound under the driving of signal current. The technology of moving coil is also relatively mature, and the price of the product is much cheaper than that of the earphone with electrostatic technology.

与动圈耳机相比,静电耳机有两个很大的优势:一是振膜可以做得极薄极轻,如 STAX 最新一代的中高档静电耳机振膜厚度只有 1.35 微米,这是动圈耳机的振膜无论如何无法接近的。最高级的动圈耳机的振膜也至少有 5 微米厚(参照:漫步者 H850 振膜),因为动圈振膜必须保持一定的刚性,加上音圈重量和静电比起来天地之差。静电式耳机更轻更薄的振膜带来的是更快的速度、更佳的瞬态反应、更强的细节表现力。第二,动圈耳机的振膜无论怎样设计,振膜受力都不均匀,存在着分割振动,而静电耳机的振膜是夹在正负两个平行固定极板之间的完全平面的振膜,受到的电场是完全均匀的,所以能做到线性驱动,不存在分割振动,动圈耳机的这项局限它根本就没有。

Compared with moving coil earphones, electrostatic earphones have two great advantages: one is that the diaphragm can be made extremely thin and very light. For example, the diaphragm thickness of the latest generation of Stax middle and high-grade electrostatic earphones is only 1.35 μ m, which is the diaphragm of moving coil earphone can not be approached in any case. The diaphragm of the most advanced dynamic headphones is also at least 5 microns thick (refer to: walkers h850 diaphragm), because the dynamic diaphragm must maintain a certain degree of rigidity, plus the difference between the voice coil weight and static electricity. The lighter and thinner diaphragm of electrostatic earphone brings faster speed, better transient response and stronger expression of details. Second, no matter how the diaphragm is designed, the force on the diaphragm is not uniform, and there is split vibration. However, the diaphragm of the electrostatic earphone is a complete plane diaphragm sandwiched between the positive and negative fixed plates. The electric field is completely uniform, so it can achieve linear drive, and there is no split vibration. There is no such limitation of the dynamic earphone.

静电耳机的结构相对于动圈耳机有着天然的优势,静电耳机可以控制振膜的最小点要比动圈耳机小很多,用显示器的分辨率作个比喻就是,在同尺寸的显示器上,静电耳机的分辨率达到 1024 乘 768,而动圈耳机只能达到 800 乘 600,更小的点组成的声音更为细腻精准。静电耳机价格昂贵,不易于驱动,所能到达的声压级也没有动圈式耳机大,但它的反应速度快,能够重放各种微小的细节,失真极低。

Compared with moving coil earphone, the structure of electrostatic earphone has natural advantages. The minimum point of diaphragm that can be controlled by electrostatic earphone is much smaller than that of dynamic earphone. For example, the resolution of electrostatic earphone can reach 1024 times 768, while that of dynamic earphone can only reach 800 times 600 on the same size display. The sound composed of smaller points is more delicate and accurate. Electrostatic earphones are expensive, not easy to drive, and the sound pressure level they can reach is not as large as that of moving coil earphones. However, it has fast response speed, can replay all kinds of tiny details, and has very low distortion.


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