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【速搜问答】流程优化是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-07-21) 507次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

流程优化是一项策略,通过不断发展、完善、优化业务流程保持企业的竞争优势。在流程的设计和实施过程中,要对流程进行不断的改进,以期取得最佳的效果。对现有工作流程的梳理、完善和改进的过程,称为流程的优化。

Process optimization is a strategy, through continuous development, improvement, optimization of business processes to maintain the competitive advantage of enterprises. In the process of process design and implementation, the process should be continuously improved in order to achieve the best effect. The process of combing, improving and improving the existing workflow is called process optimization.

流程优化不仅仅指做正确的事,还包括如何正确地做这些事。流程优化是一项策略,通过不断发展、完善、优化业务流程保持企业的竞争优势。在流程的设计和实施过程中,要对流程进行不断的改进,以期取得最佳的效果。对现有工作流程的梳理、完善和改进的过程,称为流程的优化。

Process optimization is not only about doing the right things, but also about how to do them correctly. Process optimization is a strategy, through continuous development, improvement, optimization of business processes to maintain the competitive advantage of enterprises. In the process of process design and implementation, the process should be continuously improved in order to achieve the best effect. The process of combing, improving and improving the existing workflow is called process optimization.

流程即一系列共同给客户创造价值的相互关联活动的过程,在传统以职能为中心的管理模式下,流程隐蔽在臃肿的组织结构背后,流程运作复杂、效率低下、顾客抱怨等问题层出不穷。整个组织形成了所谓的“圆桶效应”。为了解决企业面对新的环境、在传统以职能为中心的管理模式下产生的问题,必须对业务流程进行重整,从本质上反思业务流程,彻底重新设计业务流程,以便在当今衡量绩效的关键(如质量、成本、速度、服务)上取得突破性的改变。

Process is a series of interrelated activities that create value for customers. Under the traditional function centered management mode, the process is hidden behind the bloated organizational structure, and problems such as complex operation, low efficiency and customer complaints emerge one after another. The so-called “barrel effect” is formed throughout the organization. In order to solve the problems that enterprises face in the new environment and under the traditional function centered management mode, it is necessary to restructure the business process, reflect on the business process in essence, and completely redesign the business process, so as to make a breakthrough change in the key factors of performance measurement (such as quality, cost, speed, service).

流程优化,最重要的是在组织高管层面有完善的优化计划与实施步骤以及对预期可能出现的障碍与阻力有清醒认识。

Process optimization, the most important thing is to have a sound optimization plan and implementation steps at the organization level, as well as a clear understanding of the expected obstacles and resistance.

基本定义

Basic definition

对流程的优化,不论是对流程整体的优化还是对其中部分的改进,如减少环节、改变时序,都是以提高工作质量、提高工作效率、降低成本、降低劳动强度、节约能耗、保证安全生产、减少污染等为目的。

The optimization of the process, whether it is the overall optimization of the process or the improvement of some parts, such as reducing links and changing time sequence, is aimed at improving work quality, improving work efficiency, reducing costs, reducing labor intensity, saving energy consumption, ensuring safe production and reducing pollution.

流程优化要围绕优化对象要达到的目标进行;在现有的基础上,提出改进后的实施方案,并对其作出评价;针对评价中发现的问题,再次进行改进,直至满意后开始试行,正式实施。

Process optimization should focus on the objectives of the optimization object; on the existing basis, put forward the improved implementation plan and evaluate it; in view of the problems found in the evaluation, it should be improved again until it is satisfied, and then it will be put into practice formally.

途径

channel

流程优化的主要途径是设备更新、材料替代、环节简化和时序调整。大部分流程可以通过流程改造的方法完成优化过程。对于某些效率低下的流程,也可以完全推翻原有流程,运用重新设计的方法获得流程的优化。

The main approaches to process optimization are equipment updating, material substitution, link simplification and timing adjustment. Most of the processes can be optimized by means of process transformation. For some inefficient processes, the original process can be completely overturned, and the process optimization can be achieved by redesigning.

(一)流程改造

(1) Process transformation

在工作过程中一般遇到难以采用设备更新和材料替代优化流程时,往往采取以下措施:

In the process of work, when it is difficult to use equipment update and material substitution to optimize the process, the following measures are often taken:

1.取消所有不必要的工作环节和内容

1. Cancel all unnecessary work links and contents

有必要取消的工作,自然不必再花时间研究如何改进。某个处理、某道手续,首先要研究是否可以取消,这是改善工作程序、提高工作效率的最高原则。

If it is necessary to cancel the work, there is no need to spend time studying how to improve it. In order to improve the working procedure and efficiency, we should first study whether it can be cancelled or not.

2.合并必要的工作

2. Merge the necessary work

如工作环节不能取消,可进而研究能否合并。为了做好一项工作,自然要有分工和合作。分工的目的,或是由于专业需要,为了提高工作效率;或是因工作量超过某些人员所能承受的负担。如果不是这样,就需要合并。有时为了提高效率、简化工作甚至不必过多地考虑专业分工,而且特别需要考虑保持满负荷工作。

If the work link cannot be cancelled, we can further study whether it can be merged. In order to do a good job, there must be division of labor and cooperation. The purpose of division of labor is to improve work efficiency, or the workload exceeds the burden that some personnel can bear. If not, consolidation is needed. Sometimes, in order to improve the efficiency and simplify the work, it is not even necessary to consider the professional division of labor too much, and it is particularly necessary to consider keeping the work at full load.

3.程序的合理重排

3. Reasonable rearrangement of procedures

取消和合并以后,还要将所有程序按照合理的逻辑重排顺序,或者在改变其他要素顺序后,重新安排工作顺序和步骤

After canceling and merging, all programs should be rearranged according to reasonable logic, or the working order and steps should be rearranged after changing the order of other elements

在这一过程中还可进一步发现可以取消和合并的内容,使作业更有条理,工作效率更高。

In this process, we can further find the content that can be cancelled and merged, which makes the work more organized and more efficient.

4.简化所必需的工作环节

4. Simplify the necessary work links

对程序的改进,除去可取消和合并之外,余下的还可进行必要的简化,这种简化是对工作内容和处理环节本身的简化。

In addition to canceling and merging, the rest of the program can also be simplified. This simplification is the simplification of the work content and the processing link itself.

(二)重新设计新流程

(2) Redesign new process

如果决定采用重新设计的方法优化流程,可按以下步骤进行:

If it is decided to adopt the redesign method to optimize the process, the following steps can be taken:

1.首先要充分理解现有流程,以避免新设计中出现类似的问题。

1. First, fully understand the existing process to avoid similar problems in the new design.

2.集思广益,奇思妙想,提出新思路。

2. Put forward new ideas through brainstorming.

3 .思路转变成流程设计。对新提出来的流程思路的细节进行探讨。不以现有流程设计为基础,坚持“全新设计”的立场,反复迭代,多次检讨,深入到一定细节的考虑,瞄准目标设计出新的流程。

3. Change ideas into process design. The details of the new process ideas are discussed. Not based on the existing process design, adhere to the position of “brand new design”, iterate repeatedly, review many times, deeply consider certain details, and design a new process aiming at the goal.

4 .新流程设计出来之后,应该通过模拟它在现实中的运行对设计进行检验。流程图是一个描述新流程的理想手段,检验前应画出流程图。

4. After the new process is designed, it should be tested by simulating its operation in reality. The flow chart is an ideal means to describe the new process. The flow chart should be drawn before inspection.

条件

condition

流程的优化和改进需要一定的条件。要做好优化,需要把握和创造条件。

Process optimization and improvement need certain conditions. To do a good job in optimization, we need to grasp and create conditions.

(一)外部条件

(1) External conditions

从外部条件的需要看,要建立在设备的完善或工艺水平的提高的基础上。

From the need of external conditions, it should be based on the improvement of equipment or process level.

(二)内部条件

(2) Internal conditions

从内部条件的需要看,要建立在对流程内在机理进一步研究的基础上。

From the perspective of internal conditions, it should be based on the further study of the internal mechanism of the process.

内容

content

流程设计涉及到工期优化、工艺优化、成本优化、技术优化、质量优化等优化指标。进行流程优化时,应根据需要,针对某一个或多个指标进行优化。

Process design involves time limit optimization, process optimization, cost optimization, technology optimization, quality optimization and other optimization indicators. In process optimization, one or more indicators should be optimized according to the needs.

(一)工期优化

(1) Construction period optimization

(二)工艺优化

(2) Process optimization

(三)成本优化

(3) Cost optimization

(四)技术优化

(4) Technology optimization

(五)质量优化

(5) Quality optimization

方法

method

鹰腾咨询“管理上市”系列丛书之《上市·策》中指出,目前流行的流程优化主要有以下几种方法:

According to the listing strategy of yingteng Consulting’s series of “management and listing”, the following methods are mainly used to optimize the process at present

1.标杆瞄准法

1. Benchmarking

标杆瞄准法/基准化分析法(benchmarking,BMK),又称竞标赶超、战略竞标,是将本企业各项活动与从事该项活动最佳者进行比较,从而提出行动方法,以弥补自身的不足。

Benchmarking / benchmarking (BmK), also known as bidding catching up and strategic bidding, is to compare the activities of the enterprise with those who are the best in this activity, so as to put forward action methods to make up for their own shortcomings.

2.DMAIC 模型

2. DMAIC model

DMAIC 模型是实施 6sigma(6σ)的一套操作方法。

DMAIC model is a set of operation method to implement 6 sigma (6 σ).

DMAIC 是 6σ管理中最重要、最经典的管理模型,主要侧重在已有流程的质量改善方面。所有 6σ管理涉及到的专业统计工具与方法,都贯穿在每一个 6σ质量改进项目的环节中。

DMAIC is the most important and classic management model in 6 σ management, which mainly focuses on the quality improvement of existing processes. All the professional statistical tools and methods involved in 6 σ management run through every 6 σ quality improvement project.

3.ESIA 分析法

3. ESIA analysis method

所有企业的最终目的都应该是为了提升顾客在价值链上的价值分配。重新设计新的流程以替代原有流程的根本目的,就是为了以一种新的结构方式为顾客提供这种价值的增加,及其价值增加的程度。反映到具体的流程设计上,就是尽一切可能减少流程中非增值活动调整流程中的核心增值活动。其基本原则就是 ESIA。

The ultimate goal of all enterprises should be to enhance the value distribution of customers in the value chain. The fundamental purpose of redesigning a new process to replace the original one is to provide customers with this value increase and the degree of value increase in a new structural way. Reflecting on the specific process design, it is to reduce the non value-added activities in the process as much as possible, and adjust the core value-added activities in the process. Its basic principle is ESIA.

4.ECRS 分析法

4. ECRs analysis method

ECRS 分析法,即取消(eliminate)、合并(combine)、重排(rearrange)、简化(simplify)。

ECRs analysis method is eliminate, combine, rearrange and simplify.

5.SDCA 循环

5. SDCA cycle

SDCA 循环就是标准化维持,即“标准、执行、检查、总结(调整)”模式,包括所有和改进过程相关的流程的更新(标准化),并使其平衡运行,然后检查过程,以确保其精确性,最后作出合理分析和调整使得过程能够满足愿望和要求。

SDCA cycle is the maintenance of standardization, that is, the “standard, implementation, inspection, summary (adjustment)” mode, including the updating (Standardization) of all processes related to the improvement process, and making it run in balance, then checking the process to ensure its accuracy, and finally making reasonable analysis and adjustment to make the process meet the wishes and requirements.

三重境界

Triple realm

一、 流程优化前的工作

1、 Work before process optimization

我们应该静下思考一下,目前的流程运行是否顺畅?流程的绩效是否满足企业战略和经营的最新要求?

We should calm down and think about whether the current process is running smoothly? Does the performance of the process meet the latest requirements of corporate strategy and operation?

我们都知道,流程管理是一种以规范化的构造端到端的卓越业务流程为中心,以持续提高业务绩效为目的的系统化方法。既然流程是以业务绩效为根据目的,那么对流程进行优化和提升也应该是长期的重要工作内容。

As we all know, process management is a systematic method which takes the standardized construction of end-to-end excellent business process as the center and continuously improves the business performance. Since the process is based on business performance, it should be an important long-term work to optimize and improve the process.

据了解,如果流程在运行六个月之后,如果无人管理和优化,流程将逐步变得难以使用,大多数流程在一年的时间内就将瘫痪停滞。由此可见,流程是具有一定的生命周期,也是具有流程梳理、流程设计、开发、调试、部署、维护、优化乃至淘汰的一系列过程。因此,我们应该阶段性的对流程进行评估和监控,通过不断发展、完善、优化业务流程保持企业的高效运营,也即是需要开展流程优化的工作。

It is understood that if the process runs for six months, if it is not managed and optimized, the process will gradually become difficult to use, and most processes will be paralyzed and stagnated in a year. Thus, the process has a certain life cycle, and also a series of processes including process carding, process design, development, debugging, deployment, maintenance, optimization and even elimination. Therefore, we should evaluate and monitor the process periodically, and maintain the efficient operation of the enterprise through continuous development, improvement and optimization of the business process, that is to say, we need to carry out the work of process optimization.

在此需要强调的是,流程优化,并不推荐全面优化,企业可以根据实际情况选择核心的业务流程逐步优化提升。核心流程是对创造顾客价值最为重要的部门或者作业环节,如吸引顾客、订货管理、电话服务响应流程、顾客服务与支持或开发新产品等流程,它们直接关系顾客的满意程度与愉悦度。与此相对应,诸如融资、预算、人力资源管理、信息系统等流程属于辅助流程,对核心流程起支持作用,它们与提高顾客满意度是一种间接的关系,对于辅助流程,只需要保障顺畅的运行即可,企业不必投入过高的成本进行优化和提升。

What needs to be emphasized here is that process optimization is not recommended. Enterprises can choose the core business process according to the actual situation and gradually optimize and upgrade. The core process is the most important department or operation link to create customer value, such as attracting customers, ordering management, telephone service response process, customer service and support, or developing new products, which are directly related to customer satisfaction and pleasure. Correspondingly, processes such as financing, budgeting, human resource management and information system are auxiliary processes, which support the core processes. They have an indirect relationship with improving customer satisfaction. For auxiliary processes, only smooth operation is needed, and enterprises do not have to invest too much cost to optimize and improve.

那么,该如何进行流程优化呢?首先需要对流程进行评估工作。当然也可以参考 Paul Harmon 于 2004 年提出流程成熟度模型(BPMM,Business Process Maturity Model)。参考 CMMI 的流程能力分级情况,结合流程在企业中的实际运用水平,对流程能力划分为五个等级。

So, how to optimize the process? The first step is to evaluate the process. Of course, we can also refer to the BPMM (business process maturity model) proposed by Paul Harmon in 2004. Referring to the process capability classification of CMMI and the actual application level of process in enterprises, the process capability is divided into five levels.

初始级:即流程部分制度化,做事没有固定规矩,靠直觉,兴之所至,没有计划。

Initial level: that is, the process is partially institutionalized, and there are no fixed rules for doing things. It depends on intuition, and there is no plan.

经验级:即流程已经制度化,依托于过往经验形成参考,有计划。

Experience level: that is, the process has been institutionalized, based on past experience to form a reference and plan.

规范级:流程已经规范化,有严格的规范措施,保障资源,清晰的权限结构,员工可以参考执行。

Standard level: the process has been standardized, there are strict regulatory measures, guarantee resources, clear authority structure, employees can refer to the implementation.

度量级:已经实现了对流程通过量化和统计技术进行管理,和企业运营、组织绩效紧密相关,已经可以让组织具备更强的市场竞争力。

Measurement level: it has realized the management of process through quantitative and statistical technology, which is closely related to enterprise operation and organizational performance, and can make the organization have stronger market competitiveness.

卓越级:流程已经可以实现对战略的完整支撑,流程运营效率已经可以达到同行业的先进水平,可以成为区域性的标杆。

Excellence Level: the process has been able to achieve complete support for the strategy, the process operation efficiency has reached the advanced level of the same industry, and can become a regional benchmark.

目前,大多数的企业流程处于经验级和规范级的能力水平,即已经建立了规范的流程指引,部分流程也实现了电子化审批,有相关的流程专员进行梳理推行。对于流程能力具体所处的等级,我们可以从文化、管理、技术等多个维度进行界定和分析,评估流程目前所处的等级,确定未来优化所需要达到的等级,以此不断的提升流程运行效率。

At present, most of the enterprise processes are at the level of experience level and standard level, that is to say, the standard process guidance has been established, and some processes have also realized electronic approval, and relevant process specialists have combed and implemented them. For the specific level of process capability, we can define and analyze from culture, management, technology and other dimensions, evaluate the current level of the process, and determine the level of future optimization, so as to continuously improve the process operation efficiency.

二、 流程优化的三种策略

2、 Three strategies of process optimization

那么,在完成了流程评估的第一步工作之后,流程优化该怎样具体进行呢?流程优化可以依据 PPS 三种策略进行优化,即分别是基于绩效(Performance)、过程(Process)以及战略(Strategy)的三种策略,而这三种策略也就构成了流程优化的三重境界。

So, after the first step of process evaluation, how to optimize the process? Process optimization can be optimized according to three strategies of PPS, namely, three strategies based on performance, process and strategy, and these three strategies constitute the triple realm of process optimization.

核心问题

Core issues

常见问题

common problem

(一)管理流程和业务流程混为一谈;

(1) Management process and business process are confused;

(二)核心业务流程不清晰,核心业务流程受到职能的不合理制约,导致流程不顺畅;

(2) The core business process is not clear, and the core business process is not reasonable restricted by the function, resulting in the process is not smooth;

(三)核心业务流程不是以客户

(3) The core business process is not based on customers


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