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【速搜问答】结构图是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-07-21) 582次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

结构图是指以模块的调用关系为线索,用自上而下的连线表示调用关系并注明参数传递的方向和内容,从宏观上反映软件层次结构的图形,结构图分建筑图和组织结构图。

Structure diagram is a graph that takes the calling relationship of modules as the clue, uses top-down lines to express the calling relationship and indicates the direction and content of parameter transfer, and reflects the software hierarchical structure from a macro perspective. The structure diagram is divided into architectural diagram and organization chart.

结构图是指以模块的调用关系为线索,用自上而下的连线表示调用关系并注明参数传递的方向和内容,从宏观上反映软件层次结构的图形,结构图分建筑图和组织结构图。

Structure diagram is a graph that takes the calling relationship of modules as the clue, uses top-down lines to express the calling relationship and indicates the direction and content of parameter transfer, and reflects the software hierarchical structure from a macro perspective. The structure diagram is divided into architectural diagram and organization chart.

概念

concept

结构图:指以模块的调用关系为线索,用自上而下的连线表示调用关系并注明参数传递的方向和内容,从宏观上反映软件层次结构的图形。

Structure diagram: it refers to the graph that takes the calling relationship of modules as the clue, and indicates the direction and content of parameter transfer with top-down lines, and reflects the software hierarchical structure from a macro perspective.

分类

classification

分类: 结构图又分为建筑结构图,组织结构图,其它结构图等。

Classification: structural drawing can be divided into building structure chart, organization chart and other structural drawings.

建筑结构图

Building structure drawing

一、结 构

1、 Structure

1 在施工图设计阶段,结构专业设计文件应包含图纸目录、设计说明、设计图纸、计算书(内部归档)。

1. In the construction drawing design stage, the structural design documents should include the drawing catalogue, design description, design drawings and calculation sheet (internal filing).

2 图纸目录 应按图纸序号排列,先列新绘制图纸,后列选用的重复利用图和标准图。

2. The list of drawings shall be arranged according to the serial number of the drawings. The newly prepared drawings shall be listed first, and then the selected reuse drawings and standard drawings shall be listed.

3 结构设计总说明 每一单项工程应编写一份结构设计总说明,对多于项工程宜编写统一的结构施工图 设计总说明。如为简单的小型单项工程,则设计总说明中的内容可分别写在基础平面图和各层结构平面图上。 结构设计总说明应包括以下内容:

3. General description of structural design, a general description of structural design shall be prepared for each single project, and a unified general description of structural construction drawing design shall be prepared for more than one project. If it is a simple small single project, the contents in the general design description can be written on the foundation plan and the structural plan of each floor. The general description of structural design shall include the following contents:

1 本工程结构设计的主要依据;

1. Main basis for structural design of the project;

2 设计 0.000 标高所对应的绝对标高值;

2. The absolute elevation corresponding to the designed elevation of 0.000;

3 图纸中标高、尺寸的单位;

3. The unit of elevation and dimension in the drawing;

4 建筑结构的安全等级和设计使用年限,混凝土结构的耐久性要求和砌体结构施工质量控制等级:

4. Safety level and design service life of building structure, durability requirements of concrete structure and construction quality control grade of masonry structure:

5 建筑场地类别、地基的液化等级、建筑抗震设防类别,抗震设防烈度(设计基本地震加速度及设计地震分组)和钢筋混凝土结构的抗震等级;

5. Construction site category, liquefaction grade of foundation, seismic fortification category of building, seismic fortification intensity (design basic seismic acceleration and design earthquake grouping) and seismic grade of reinforced concrete structure;

6 人防工程的抗力等级;

6. Resistance level of civil air defense project;

7 扼要说明有关地基概况,对不良地基的处理措施及技术要求、抗液化措施及要求、地基土的冰冻深度,地基基础的设计等级;

7. Briefly describe the general situation of relevant foundation, treatment measures and technical requirements for bad foundation, anti liquefaction measures and requirements, frozen depth of foundation soil, and design grade of foundation;

8 采用的设计菏载,包含风荷载、雪荷载、楼屋面允许使用荷载、特殊部位的最大使用荷载标准值;

8. The adopted design load includes wind load, snow load, allowable use load of building roof, and the standard value of maximum service load of special parts;

9 所选用结构材料的品种、规格、性能及相应的产品标准,当为钢筋混凝土结构时,应说明受力钢筋的保护层厚度、锚固长度、搭接长度、接长方法,预应力构件的锚具种类、预留孔道做法、施工要求及锚具防腐措施等,并对某些构件或部位的材料提出特殊要求;

9. The type, specification, performance and corresponding product standards of structural materials selected. When reinforced concrete structure is adopted, the thickness of protective layer, anchorage length, lap length, extension method of stressed reinforcement, anchorage type of prestressed member, method of reserved duct, construction requirements and anti-corrosion measures of anchorage shall be specified, and special requirements for materials of some components or parts shall be put forward;

10 对水池、地下室等有抗渗要求的建(构)筑物的混凝土,说明抗渗等级,需作试漏的提出具体要求,在施工期间存有上浮可能时,应提出抗浮措施;

10 for the concrete of buildings (structures) with impermeability requirements such as pools and basements, the impermeability grade shall be explained, and the specific requirements for leakage test shall be put forward. When there is possibility of floating up during construction, anti floating measures shall be proposed;

11 所采用的通用做法和标准构件图集;如有特殊构件需作结构性能检验时,应指出检验的方法与要求;

11. The general practice and standard component atlas adopted; if there are special components that need to be inspected for structural performance, the inspection methods and requirements shall be pointed out;

12 施工中应遵循的施工规范和注意事项。

12. Construction specifications and precautions to be followed in construction.

二、基础平面图

2、 Foundation plan

1 绘出定位轴线、基础构件(包括承台,基础梁等)的位置、尺寸、 底标高 、构件编号,基础底标高不同时,应绘出放坡示意。

1 draw the location axis, location, size, bottom elevation and component number of foundation components (including bearing platform, foundation beam, etc.), and when the foundation bottom elevation is different, the grading diagram shall be drawn.

2 标明结构承重墙与墙垛、柱的位置与尺寸、编号,当为混凝土结构时,此项可另绘平面图,并注明断面变化关系尺寸。

2. Mark the position, size and number of the structural load-bearing wall, wall buttress and column. When it is a concrete structure, another plan can be drawn for this item, and the dimension of cross-section change relation shall be indicated.

3 标明地沟,地坑和已定设备基础的平面位置、尺寸、标高,无地下室时±0.000 标高以下的预留孔与埋件的位置、尺寸、标高。

3 mark the plane position, size and elevation of trench, pit and determined equipment foundation, and position, size and elevation of reserved holes and embedded parts below ± 0.000 elevation without basement.

4 提出沉降观测要求及测点布置(宜附测点构造详图)。

4. Put forward the settlement observation requirements and the layout of the measuring points (the detailed structural drawing of the measuring points should be attached).

5 说明中应包括基础持力层及基础进入持力层的深度,地基的承载能力特征值,基底及基槽回填土的处理措施与要求,以及对施工的有关要求等。

5. The description shall include the bearing layer of foundation and the depth of foundation entering into the bearing layer, the characteristic value of bearing capacity of foundation, the treatment measures and requirements for the backfill of foundation and foundation trench, and the relevant requirements for construction, etc.

6 桩基应绘出桩位平面位置及定位尺寸,说明桩的类型和桩顶标高、入土深度、桩端持力层及进入持力层的深度,成桩的施工要求、试桩要求和桩基的检测要求(若先做试桩时,应单独先绘制试桩定位平面图),注明单桩的允许极限承载力值。

6. For pile foundation, the plane position and positioning size of pile position shall be drawn, indicating the type of pile and the elevation of pile top, the depth of soil penetration, the bearing layer of pile end and the depth of entering the bearing layer, the construction requirements of pile forming, the requirements of pile test and pile foundation detection (if the test pile is conducted first, the positioning plan of test pile shall be drawn separately), and the allowable ultimate bearing capacity value of single pile shall be indicated.

7 当采用人工复合地基时,应绘出复合地基的处理范围和深度,置换桩的平面布置及其材料和性能要求、构造祥图;注明复合地基的承载能力特征值及压缩模量等有关参数和检测要求。

When the artificial composite foundation is adopted, the treatment range and depth of the composite foundation, the plane layout of the replacement pile, the material and performance requirements, and the detailed structure diagram shall be drawn; the bearing capacity characteristic value, compression modulus and other relevant parameters and testing requirements of the composite foundation shall be indicated.

当复合地基另由有设计资质的单位设计时,主体设计方应明确提出对地基承载力特征值和变形值的控制要求。

When the composite foundation is designed by a qualified design unit, the main designer should clearly put forward the control requirements for the characteristic value and deformation value of the foundation bearing capacity.

三、 基础详图

3、 Foundation details

1 无筋扩展基础应绘出剖面、基础圈梁、防潮层位置,并标注总尺寸、分尺寸、标高及定位尺寸。

1. For the unreinforced foundation, the section, foundation ring beam and the position of damp proof course shall be drawn, and the overall dimension, sub dimension, elevation and positioning dimension shall be marked.

2 扩展基础应绘出平、剖面及配筋、基础垫层,标注总尺寸、分尺寸、标高及定位尺寸等。

2. The plane, section, reinforcement and foundation cushion of the extended foundation shall be drawn, and the overall dimension, sub dimension, elevation and positioning dimension shall be marked.

3 桩基应绘出承台梁剖面或承台板平面、 剖面、垫层、配筋,标注总尺寸、分尺寸、标高及定位尺寸,桩构造详图(可另图绘制)及桩与承台的连接构造详图。

3. For pile foundation, the bearing beam section or bearing platform plate plane, section, cushion and reinforcement shall be drawn, and the overall dimension, sub dimension, elevation and positioning dimension shall be marked, and the detailed drawing of pile structure (which can be drawn by another drawing) and the connection structure detail of pile and bearing platform shall be marked.

4 筏基、箱基可参照现浇楼面梁、板详图的方法表示,但应绘出承重墙、柱的位置。当要求设后浇带时应表示其平面位置并绘制构造详图。对箱基和地下室基础,应绘出钢筋混凝土墙的平面、剖面及其配筋,当预留孔洞、预埋件较多或复杂时,可另绘墙的模板图。

4 raft foundation and box foundation can be expressed according to the detailed drawing of cast-in-place floor beam and slab, but the position of bearing wall and column should be drawn. When the post cast strip is required, its plane position shall be indicated and the detailed structural drawing shall be drawn. For box foundation and basement foundation, the plane, section and reinforcement of reinforced concrete wall shall be drawn. When there are many or complicated reserved holes and embedded parts, the wall formwork drawing can be drawn separately.

5 基础梁可参照现浇楼面梁详图方法表示。

5. The foundation beam can refer to the detailed drawing method of cast-in-place floor beam.

6 附加说明基础材料的品种、规格、性能、抗渗等级、垫层材料、杯口填充材料。钢筋保护层厚度及其他对施工的要求。 注:对形状简单、规则的无筋扩展基础、扩展基础、基础粱和承台板,也可用列表方法表示。

6. The variety, specification, performance, impermeability grade, cushion material and cup filling material of foundation materials shall be added. The thickness of protective layer of reinforcement and other requirements for construction. Note: for simple and regular reinforced spread foundation, extended foundation, foundation beam and cap slab, the list method can also be used.

四、 结构平面图

4、 Structural plan

1 一般建筑的结构平面图,均应有各层结构平面图及屋面结构平面图。具体内容为:

1. The structural plan of general buildings should have the structural plan of each floor and the roof structure plan. The specific contents are as follows:

1)绘出定位轴线及梁、柱、承重墙,抗震构造柱等定位尺寸,并注明其编号和楼层标高;

1) Draw the positioning axis and positioning dimensions of beam, column, bearing wall and seismic structural column, and indicate their number and floor elevation;

2)注明预制板的跨度方向、板号、数量及板底标高,标出预留洞大小及位置;预制梁、洞口过梁的位置和型号、梁底标高;

2) Indicate the span direction, plate number, quantity and bottom elevation of precast slab, mark the size and position of reserved hole, position and model of precast beam and lintel at opening, and elevation of beam bottom;

3)现浇板应注明板厚、板面标高、配筋(亦可另绘放大比例的配筋图,必要时应将现浇楼面模板图和配筋图分别绘制),标高或板厚变化处绘局部剖面,有预留孔、埋件、已定设备基础时应示出规格与位置,洞边加强措施,当预留孔、埋件、设备基础复杂时亦可放大另绘;

3) The cast-in-place slab shall be marked with slab thickness, slab surface elevation and reinforcement (the reinforcement drawing with enlarged scale can also be drawn. If necessary, the cast-in-place floor formwork drawing and reinforcement drawing shall be drawn separately). The local section shall be drawn at the change of elevation or slab thickness. When there are reserved holes, embedded parts and fixed equipment foundation, the specification and position shall be shown. The hole edge reinforcement measures shall be taken. When the reserved hole, embedded parts and equipment foundation are complex, they can be placed Big another painting;

4)有圈梁时应注明位置、编号、标高,可用小比例绘制单线平面示意图。

4) When there is ring beam, the position, number and elevation shall be indicated, and the single line plan diagram can be drawn in small scale.

5)楼梯间可绘斜线注明编号与所在详图号;

5) The number and detail number of the staircase can be marked with a diagonal line;

6)电梯间应绘制机房结构平面布置(楼面与顶面)图,注明梁板编号、板的厚度与配筋、预留洞大小与位置、板面标高及吊钩平面位置与详图;

6) The elevator hall shall draw the structural plane layout (floor and top surface) of the machine room, indicating the number of beam and slab, the thickness and reinforcement of slab, the size and position of reserved holes, the elevation of slab surface and the plane position and details of hook;

7)屋面结构平面布置图内容与楼层平面类同,当结构找坡时应标注屋面板的坡度、坡向、坡向起终点处的板面标高,当屋面上有留洞或其他设施时应绘出其位置、尺寸与详图,女儿墙或女儿墙构造柱的位置、编号及详图;

7) The content of the roof structure layout plan is similar to that of the floor plan. When the structural slope is found, the slope, slope direction and slab elevation at the starting and ending points of the slope direction should be marked. When there are holes or other facilities on the roof, the position, size and detail drawing of the parapet or parapet structural column should be drawn;

8)当选用标准图中节点或另绘节点构造详图时,应在平面图中注明详图索引号。

8) When selecting the node in the standard drawing or drawing the detail of node structure separately, the detailed index number should be indicated in the plan.

2 单层空旷房屋应绘制构件布置图及屋面结构布置图,应有以下内容:

2. The layout of components and roof structure shall be drawn for single storey open house, which shall include the following contents:

1)构件布置应表示定位轴线,墙、柱、大桥、过梁、门樘、雨篷、柱间支、连系梁等的布置、编号、构件标高及详图索引号,并加注有关说明等;

1) The component layout shall indicate the positioning axis, arrangement, number, component elevation and detailed index number of wall, column, bridge, lintel, door sill, awning, support between columns, tie beam, etc., and mark with relevant instructions;

2)屋面结构布置图应表示定位轴线(可不绘墙,柱)、屋面结构构件的位置及编号、支撑系统布置及编号、预留孔洞的位置、尺寸、节点详图索引号,有关的说明等。

2) The layout plan of roof structure shall indicate the positioning axis (wall and column can not be drawn), the position and number of roof structural members, the layout and number of support system, the position and size of reserved holes, the index number of node details, and relevant descriptions.

五、钢筋混凝土构件详图

5、 Details of reinforced concrete members

1 现浇构件(现浇梁、板、柱及墙等详图)应绘出:

1. Cast in place components (detailed drawings of cast-in-place beams, slabs, columns and walls) shall be drawn as follows:

1)纵剖面、长度、定位尺寸、标高及配筋,梁和板的支座;现浇的预应力混凝土构件尚应绘出预应力筋定位图并提出锚固要求;

1) In addition, the length and location of the bearing, the length of the prestressed concrete beam and the location of the beam and the length of the beam should be drawn;

2)横剖面、定位尺寸、断面尺寸、配筋;

2) Cross section, location size, section size and reinforcement;

3)需要时可增绘墙体立面;

3) If necessary, the wall elevation can be added;

4)若钢筋较复杂不易表示清楚时,宜将钢筋分离绘出;

4) If the reinforcement is complex and difficult to express clearly, the reinforcement should be separated and drawn;

5)对构件受力有影响的预留洞、预埋件,应注明其位置、尺寸、标高、洞边配筋及预埋件编号等;

5) The location, size, elevation, reinforcement of hole edge and number of embedded parts shall be indicated for the reserved holes and embedded parts which have influence on the force of components;

6)曲梁或平面折线梁宜增绘平面图,必要时可绘展开详图;

6) Curved beam or plane broken line beam should be added with plane drawing, and detailed drawing can be drawn if necessary;

7)一般的现浇结构的梁、柱、墙可采用“平面整体表示法”绘制,标注文字较密时,纵、横向梁宜分二幅平面绘制;

7) The beam, column and wall of general cast-in-place structure can be drawn by “plane integral representation method”. When the marking text is dense, the longitudinal and transverse beams should be drawn in two planes;

8)除总说明已叙述外需特别说明的附加内容。

8) Additional contents that need special explanation except those already described in the general description.

组织结构图

Organization chart

一、概述

1、 Overview

组织结构图(Organization Chart)又称组织架构图。是最常见的表 现雇员、职称和群体关系的一种图表,它形象地反映了组织内各机构、岗 位上下左右相互之间的关系。组织结构图是组织结构的直观反映,也是对 该组织功能的一种侧面诠释。

Organization chart is also called organization chart. Is the most common performance of employees, professional titles and group relations of a chart, it vividly reflects the organization, the position of the relationship between the left and right. The organization chart is a direct reflection of the organization structure and a side interpretation of the organization function.

二、作用

2、 Function

1. 可以显示其职能的划分;

1. It can show the division of its functions;

2. 可以知道其权责是否适当;

2. We can know whether their rights and responsibilities are appropriate;

3. 可以看出该人员的工作负荷是否过重;

3. It can be seen whether the staff’s workload is too heavy;

4. 可以看出是否有无关人员承担几种较松散,无关系的工作;

4. It can be seen whether there are irrelevant personnel to undertake several loose and unrelated work;

5. 可以看出是否有让有才干的人没有发挥出来的情形;

5. We can see whether there is a situation in which talented people are not brought into play;

6. 可以看出有没有让不胜任此项工作的人担任的重要职位;

6. It can be seen whether there are important positions for those who are not qualified for the job;

7. 可以看出晋升的渠道是否畅通;

7. We can see whether the promotion channel is smooth or not;

8. 可以显示出下次升级时谁是最合适的人选;

8. It can show who is the most suitable person for the next upgrade;

9. 可以使各人清楚自己组织内的工作,加强其参与工作的欲望,其他部门的人员也可以明了,增强组织的协调性。

9. It can make everyone clear about their own work in the organization, strengthen their desire to participate in the work, and the personnel of other departments can also understand and enhance the coordination of the organization.

三、类型

3、 Type

1.“直线制”的组织结构

1. The organizational structure of “linear system”

直线制:最简单的集权式组织结构形式,又称军队式结构,其领导关系按垂直系统建立,不设专门的职能机构,自上而下形同直线。直线制是一种最早也是最简单的组织形式。

Straight line system: the simplest form of centralized organizational structure, also known as the military structure. Its leadership relationship is established according to the vertical system. There is no special functional organization, and the top-down is like a straight line. The linear system is one of the earliest and simplest forms of organization.

2.复杂的直线型组织

2. Complex linear structure

是指一切初级组织,在领导者的开创下被结合(两个或三个等)成一些部门,这些部门又可同样地被结合成更大的组织单位等。

It refers to that all primary organizations are combined (two or three, etc.) into some departments under the initiative of leaders, and these departments can also be combined into larger organizational units.

3.职能型组织

3. Functional organization

又称分职制或分部制,指行政组织同一层级横向划分为若干个部门,每个部门业务性质和基本职能相同,但互不统属、相互分工合作的组织体制。

Also known as the division system or division system, refers to the administrative organization at the same level is horizontally divided into several departments, each department has the same business nature and basic functions, but does not belong to each other, division of labor and cooperation.

4.“直线职能制”的组织结构

4. The organizational structure of “linear function system”

直线职能制组织结构是现实中运用得最为广泛的一个组织形态,它把直线制结构与职能制结构结合

The organizational structure of linear functional system is the most widely used organizational form in reality. It combines the linear system structure with the functional system structure


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