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【速搜问答】whois是什么

问答 admin 3年前 (2020-07-17) 525次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

whois(读作 Who is)是用来查询域名的IP以及所有者等信息的传输协议。简单说whois就是一个用来查询域名是否已经被注册,以及注册域名的详细信息的数据库(如域名所有人、域名注册商)。通过whois来实现对域名信息的查询。

Whois (pronounced who is) is a transport protocol used to query IP and owner information of domain names. In short, whois is is a database used to query whether a domain name has been registered or not, as well as the detailed information of the registered domain name (such as the owner of the domain name and the domain name registrant). The query of domain name information is realized by whois.

whois(读作“Who is”,非缩写)是用来查询域名的 IP 以及所有者等信息的传输协议。简单说,whois 就是一个用来查询域名是否已经被注册,以及注册域名的详细信息的数据库(如域名所有人、域名注册商)。通过 whois 来实现对域名信息的查询。早期的 whois 查询多以命令列接口存在,但是现在出现了一些网页接口简化的线上查询工具,可以一次向不同的数据库查询。网页接口的查询工具仍然依赖 whois 协议向服务器发送查询请求,命令列接口的工具仍然被系统管理员广泛使用。whois 通常使用 TCP 协议 43 端口。每个域名/IP 的 whois 信息由对应的管理机构保存。

Whois (pronounced “who is”, not abbreviated) is a transport protocol used to query IP and owner information of domain names. In short, whois is is a database used to query whether a domain name has been registered and the details of the registered domain name (such as the owner of the domain name and the domain name registrant). The query of domain name information is realized by whois. The early whois query mostly existed with command line interface, but now there are some online query tools with simplified web interface, which can query different databases at one time. Web interface query tools still rely on whois protocol to send query requests to the server, and command line interface tools are still widely used by system administrators. Whois usually uses TCP protocol 43 port. Whois information of each domain name / IP is kept by the corresponding administrative agency.

简介

brief introduction

不同域名后缀的 whois 信息需要到不同的 whois 数据库查询。如.com 的 whois 数据库和.edu 的就不同。目前国内提供 WHOIS 查询服务的网站有万网、站长之家的等。每个域名或 IP 的 WHOIS 信息由对应的管理机构保存,例如,以.com 结尾的域名的 WHOIS 信息由.com 域名运营商 VeriSign 管理,中国国家顶级域名.cn 域名由 CNNIC 管理。

The whois information of different domain name suffixes needs to be queried in different whois databases. For example, the WHOIS database of. Com is different from that of. Edu. At present, the domestic web sites providing whois query service include wanwang, webmaster’s home, etc. The whois information of each domain name or IP is kept by the corresponding management organization. For example, the whois information of domain name ending with. Com is managed by VeriSign, a domain name operator of. Com, and the. CN domain name of China is managed by CNNIC.

“WHOIS”是当前域名系统中不可或缺的一项信息服务。在使用域名进行 Internet 冲浪时,很多用户希望进一步了解域名、名字服务器的详细信息,这就会用到 WHOIS。对于域名的注册服务机构(registrar)而言,要确认域名数据是否已经正确注册到域名注册中心(registry),也经常会用到 WHOIS。直观来看,WHOIS 就是链接到域名数据库的搜索引擎,一般来说是属于网络信息中心(NIC)所提供和维护的名字服务之一。

“Whois” is an indispensable information service in the current domain name system. When using domain name to surf the Internet, many users want to know more about the domain name and name server, which will use whois. Whois is is often used by the registry of domain name to confirm whether the domain name data has been correctly registered in the domain name registry. Intuitively, whois is is a search engine linked to the domain name database. Generally speaking, whois belongs to one of the name services provided and maintained by the Network Information Center (NIC).

删除规则

Delete rule

国际域名:

International Domain Name:

(1) 到期当天暂停解析,如果在 72 小时未续费,则修改域名 DNS 指向广告页面(停放)。38 天内,可以自动续费。续费后,系统自动 恢复原来的 DNS,刷新时间大概是 24-48 小时。

(1) The resolution will be suspended on the day of expiration. If the fee is not renewed within 72 hours, the domain name DNS will be modified to point to the advertisement page (parking). Within 38 days, it can be renewed automatically. After the renewal, the system automatically restores the original DNS, and the refresh time is about 24-48 hours.

(2) 39-70 天,域名处于赎回期(Redemption),此期间域名无法管理,需手工赎回!

(2) 39-70 days. The domain name is in the redemption period. During this period, the domain name cannot be managed and needs to be redeemed manually!

(3) 75 天,域名被彻底删除,可以重新注册。

(3) After 75 days, the domain name is completely deleted and can be re registered.

国内域名:

Domestic domain name:

(1) 到期当天暂停解析,如果在 72 小时未续费,则修改域名 DNS 指向 广告页面(停放)。35 天内,可以自动续费。

(1) The resolution will be suspended on the day of expiration. If the fee is not renewed within 72 hours, the domain name DNS will be modified to point to the advertisement page (parking). It can be renewed automatically within 35 days.

(2) 过期后 36-48 天,将进入 13 天的高价赎回期,此期间域名无法管 理。

(2) After 36-48 days of expiration, it will enter a 13 day high price redemption period, during which domain name cannot be managed.

(3) 过期后 48 天后仍未续费的,域名将随时被删除。

(3) The domain name will be deleted at any time if it is not renewed after 48 days.

系统组成

system composition

根据 IETF 标准要求,WHOIS 服务一般由 WHOIS 系统来提供。WHOIS 系统是一个 Client/Server 系统。其中 Client 端主要负责:

According to IETF standard, whois service is generally provided by whois system. Whois system is a client / server system. The client side is mainly responsible for:

1)提供访问 WHOIS 系统的用户接口;

1) Provide user interface to access whois system;

2)生成查询并将其以适当的格式传送给 Server;

2) Generate query and send it to server in proper format;

3)接收 Server 传回的响应,并以用户可读的形式输出。

3) Receives the response from the server and outputs it in a user-readable form.

Server 端则主要负责接收 Client 端的请求并发回响应数据。Internet 上基于 TCP 协议的基本服务都有自己默认的 TCP 端口号,像 HTTP 服务的默认端口号为 80,FTP 服务的默认控制端口号为 21(数据端口为 20)等。同样作为 Internet 上核心服务之一的 WHOIS 服务,其 Server 端默认监听 43 号 TCP 端口,接收查询请求并产生响应。一般来说,Server 端可以接收三种类型的信息查询:联系人、主机和域名。对于同一查询,Server 端的输出应该具有一致性和稳定性。

The server side is mainly responsible for receiving the request from the client side and responding to the data. The basic services based on TCP protocol on the Internet have their own default TCP port number, such as the default port number of HTTP service is 80, the default control port number of FTP service is 21 (data port is 20), etc. Whois, also one of the core services on the Internet, monitors TCP port 43 by default, receives query requests and generates responses. Generally speaking, the server can receive three types of information query: contact, host and domain name. For the same query, the output of the server side should be consistent and stable.

工作过程

working process

WHOIS 服务是一个在线的“请求/响应”式服务。WHOIS Server 运行在后台监听 43 端口,当 Internet 用户搜索一个域名(或主机、联系人等其他信息)时,WHOIS Server 首先建立一个与 Client 的 TCP 连接,然后接收用户请求的信息并据此查询后台域名数据库。如果数据库中存在相应的记录,它会将相关信息如所有者、管理信息以及技术联络信息等,反馈给 Client。待 Server 输出结束,Client 关闭连接,至此,一个查询过程结束。

Whois service is an online “request / response” service. Whois server runs in the background and monitors port 43. When Internet users search for a domain name (or host, contact and other information), whois server first establishes a TCP connection with the client, and then receives the information requested by the user and queries the background domain name database accordingly. If there are corresponding records in the database, it will feed back relevant information such as owner, management information and technical contact information to the client. When the server output is finished, the client closes the connection. At this point, a query process is completed.

发展历史

History of development

历史

history

域名系统理论的建立和应用对于 Internet 而言具有里程碑式的意义,因而早在 ARPANet 时代,域名信息就备受网络用户的关注。位于美国加州 Menlo Park 的斯坦福研究院(Stanford Research Institute,SRI)在 20 世纪 80 年代初行使着 DDN 网络信息中心(Network Information Center,NIC)的职责,在这里工作的 Ken Harrenstien 和 Vic White 等人敏感地意识到提供已注册域名信息的查询对于 NIC 而言是一项非常重要的工作,于是便开始着手建立 WHOIS 系统,并将其工作成果提交给 IETF 。经过 Ken Harrenstien 等人的改进和修改,NICNAME/WHOIS 理论得以进一步完善,成为 Internet 上的标准服务之一 。其中,NICNAME 是 WHOIS 服务在 TENEX,TOPS-20 和一部分 UNIX 系统上的叫法。因为 ARPANet 上主机数目有限,此时的 WHOIS 服务主要通过位于 SRI 的中央数据库来维护。

The establishment and application of the theory of domain name system is of milestone significance to the Internet. As early as ARPANET era, the domain name information has attracted the attention of network users. The Stanford Research Institute (SRI), located in Menlo Park, California, USA, performed the duties of DDN Network Information Center (NIC) in the early 1980s. Ken harrenstien and Vic white, who worked here, were sensitive to the fact that the query of registered domain name information is very sensitive to NIC This is a very important work, so we began to establish whois system and submit its work results to IETF. After the improvement and modification of Ken harrenstien and others, nicname / whois theory has been further improved and become one of the standard services on the Internet. Among them, nicname is the name of whois service on tenex, tops-20 and some UNIX systems. Because the number of hosts on ARPANET is limited, whois service is mainly maintained through the central database located in Sri.

这以后几乎所有的 UNIX 版本都将 WHOIS 作为 TCP/IP 协议栈中的上层应用协议,并实现了著名的客户端程序 whois。在绝大多数 UNIX 和类 UNIX 系统中键入 man 1 whois,都会得到 whois 客户端程序的使用帮助。同样,用户只要 telnet 到运行 WHOIS Server 的 43 端口,敲入所需查询的信息,也能得到相应的信息反馈。

Since then, almost all UNIX versions have taken whois as the upper application protocol in the TCP / IP protocol stack, and implemented the famous client program whois. Typing man 1 whois in most UNIX and UNIX like systems will get help from whois client program. Similarly, as long as the user telnet to the running whois server port 43, typing in the required information, can also get the corresponding information feedback.

随着 Internet 的急速膨胀,人们意识到集中式的 WHOIS Server 越来越不能够满足网络用户的需求,于是分布式就成了 WHOIS Server 的主要发展方向。“Referral WHOIS”(简称为 RWhois)就是这个方向上的研究成果,其主要思路是利用分布式的数据库来维护众多的域名、主机等信息,用 referral 来指示 client 经由网络上的多个的 Server 最后连到所查询信息的权威 WHOIS Server。另一方面,IETF 成立了 Whois and Network Information Lookup Service Working Group(WNILS)来研究将本地 WHOIS 服务进行扩展和标准化,并称之为 WHOIS++ 。

With the rapid expansion of the Internet, people realize that the centralized whois server can not meet the needs of network users, so distributed has become the main development direction of whois server. “Referral whois” (referred to as RWHOIS) is the research result in this direction. Its main idea is to use distributed database to maintain many domain names, hosts and other information, and use referral to instruct the client to connect to the authoritative whois server of the query information through multiple servers on the network. On the other hand, IETF established whois and network information lookup service working group (wnils) to study the extension and standardization of local whois service, which is called whois + +.

隐私保护

Privacy protection

有些注册商,对国际域名的 whois 信息是屏蔽的,如果要查询只能联系对应的注册商。这种保护机制是防止有人恶意利用这种 whois 信息的联系方式,暴露客户的隐私信息。

Some registrants block whois information of international domain names. If you want to query, you can only contact the corresponding registrant. This protection mechanism is to prevent someone from maliciously using the contact information of whois information to expose customers’ privacy information.

修改策略

Modify strategy

据国外媒体报道,在日前召开的一次业界会议上,与会者对 Whois 数据库隐私策略提出了异议,并建议对此作出调整。

According to foreign media reports, at an industry meeting held a few days ago, the participants raised objections to the privacy policy of WHOIS database and proposed to adjust it.

如果你拥有一个域名,那么你的隐私可能因为 Whois 当前的隐私策略而被没有必要地泄露出去,但人们对此还是束手无策。

If you have a domain name, your privacy may be unnecessarily leaked because of whois’s current privacy policy, but there is still nothing people can do about it.

事实上,这是一个很严重的问题。互联网域名的注册信息是公开的,并且可以通过“Whois”数据库来公开查询。而 Unix 和 Linux 用户也可以通过命令行来实现查询。

In fact, this is a very serious problem. The registration information of Internet domain name is public and can be queried through WHOIS database. UNIX and Linux users can also query through the command line.

如果域名持有者要注册 Whois 服务,必须要提供准确的信息。如果你的域名是出于个人使用目的,那么必须要提供家庭住址、电话号码和电子邮件地址等信息。

If domain name holders want to register whois service, they must provide accurate information. If your domain name is for personal use, you must provide information such as home address, phone number and email address.

这一问题有望得到改善,有与会者建议,取消填写家庭住址和电话号码等信息的要求。对此,业内分析师持乐观态度,希望该问题能得到彻底解决。

This problem is expected to improve and it was suggested that the requirement for information such as home address and telephone number should be eliminated. In this regard, industry analysts are optimistic that the problem can be solved completely.

CNNIC

CNNIC

CNNIC 系统

CNNIC system

中国互联网络信息中心(China Internet Network Information Center,简称 CNNIC)是经我国国务院主管部门批准授权,行使我国国家互联网络信息中心职责的管理和服务机构。作为我国的域名体系注册管理机构,CNNIC 也提供了所辖范围内域名信息查询的 WHOIS 服务。

China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) is a management and service organization authorized by the competent department of the State Council to perform the functions of CNNIC. As China’s domain name system registration authority, CNNIC also provides whois service for domain name information query within its jurisdiction.

当前,能注册在 CNNIC 域名数据库中的域名有三种:

Currently, there are three types of domain names that can be registered in CNNIC domain name database:

(1)CN 域名:以.cn 结尾的二级域名和三级域名(除外),如 cnnic、sina 等;

(1) Cn domain name: secondary domain name and third level domain name (except for CNNIC and Sina) ending with. CN;

(2)中文域名:至少含有一个中文文字,由中文、字母(A-Z,a-z,大小写等价)、数字(0-9)或符号(-)和域名层次分隔符“.”(或者中文的“。”)组成,如中国互联网络信息中心.网络、人民日报.中国、新浪.公司等;

(2) Chinese domain name: contains at least one Chinese character, consisting of Chinese, letters (A-Z, A-Z, case equivalent), numbers (0-9) or symbols (-) and domain name hierarchy separator “.” (or Chinese “.”) Composition, such as China Internet Network Information Center. Network, people’s daily. China, Sina. Company, etc;

(3)通用网址:由中文、字母(A-Z,a-z,大小写等价)、数字(0-9)或符号(-)组成,最多不超过 31 个字符的字符串,并且不含域名分隔符“.”,如:中国互联网络信息中心、CNNIC 等。

(3) General website address: a string composed of Chinese characters, letters (A-Z, A-Z, case equivalent), numbers (0-9) or symbols (-), no more than 31 characters, and no domain name separator “.”, such as China Internet Network Information Center, CNNIC, etc.

相应的,CNNIC WHOIS 服务也由三个系统构成:

Accordingly, CNNIC whois service consists of three systems:

(1).cn 域名 WHOIS 系统;

(1) . CN domain name whois system;

(2)中文域名 WHOIS 系统;

(2) Chinese domain name whois system;

(3)通用网址 WHOIS 系统。

(3) Whois system of general website.

当前我国有的注册服务机构也提供 WHOIS 服务,但对于注册在 CNNIC 的域名等信息,这些注册服务机构的信息来源最终还是 CNNIC 的 WHOIS 系统。所以,CNNIC 的 WHOIS 在所辖域内是最权威的。

At present, China’s registration service agencies also provide whois service, but for the domain name registered in CNNIC and other information, the information source of these registration service agencies is ultimately the whois system of CNNIC. Therefore, whois of CNNIC is the most authoritative in its jurisdiction.


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