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【速搜问答】微机是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-06-08) 654次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

微型计算机简称“微型机”、“微机”,由于其具备人脑的某些功能,所以也称其为“微电脑”。微型计算机是由大规模集成电路组成的、体积较小的电子计算机。它是以微处理器为基础,配以内存储器及输入输出(I/0)接口电路和相应的辅助电路而构成的裸机。

Microcomputers are called “microcomputers” or “microcomputers” for short. Because they have some functions of human brain, they are also called “microcomputers”. Microcomputers are small electronic computers made up of large scale integrated circuits. It is a bare machine based on microprocessor, with memory, I / O interface circuit and corresponding auxiliary circuit.

微型计算机简称“微型机”、“微机”,由于其具备人脑的某些功能,所以也称其为“微电脑”。微型计算机是由大规模集成电路组成的、体积较小的电子计算机。它是以微处理器为基础,配以内存储器及输入输出(I/0)接口电路和相应的辅助电路而构成的裸机。

Microcomputers are called “microcomputers” or “microcomputers” for short. Because they have some functions of human brain, they are also called “microcomputers”. Microcomputers are small electronic computers made up of large scale integrated circuits. It is a bare machine based on microprocessor, with memory, I / O interface circuit and corresponding auxiliary circuit.

微型计算机的特点是体积小、灵活性大、价格便宜、使用方便。把微型计算机集成在一个芯片上即构成单片微型计算机(Single Chip Microcomputer)。由微型计算机配以相应的外围设备(如打印机)及其他专用电路、电源、面板、机架以及足够的软件构成的系统叫做微型计算机系统(Microcomputer System)(即通常说的电脑)。

Microcomputers are characterized by small size, large flexibility, low price and convenient use. A single chip microcomputer is formed by integrating a microcomputer into a chip. A system consisting of a microcomputer with corresponding peripheral equipment (such as a printer) and other special circuits, power supply, panel, rack and sufficient software is called a microcomputer system (commonly known as a computer).

自 1981 年美国 IBM 公司推出第一代微型计算机 IBM-PC 以来,微型机以其执行结果精确、处理速度快捷、性价比高、轻便小巧等特点迅速进入社会各个领域,且技术不断更新、产品快速换代,从单纯的计算工具发展成为能够处理数字、符号、文字、语言、图形、图像、音频、视频等多种信息的强大多媒体工具。如今的微型机产品无论从运算速度、多媒体功能、软硬件支持还是易用性等方面都比早期产品有了很大飞跃。

The first generation of microcomputer IBM-PC launched by IBM in 1981 Since then, micro-computer has rapidly entered into various fields of society with its characteristics of accurate execution results, fast processing speed, high cost performance, light and compact, and its technology is constantly updated and products are rapidly updated. It has developed from a simple computing tool to a powerful multimedia tool capable of processing digital, symbol, text, language, graphics, image, audio, video and other information. Today’s micro-computer products have made a great leap forward compared with the early products in terms of computing speed, multimedia function, software and hardware support and ease of use.

微型计算机简称微机,俗称电脑,其准确的称谓应该是微型计算机系统。它可以简单地定义为:在微型计算机硬件系统的基础上配置必要的外部设备和软件构成的实体。

Microcomputers are abbreviated as microcomputers, commonly known as computers, whose exact name should be microcomputers. It can be simply defined as: on the basis of microcomputer hardware system, necessary external devices and software entities are configured.

微型计算机系统从全局到局部存在三个层次:微型计算机系统、微型计算机、微处理器(CPU)。单纯的微处理器和单纯的微型计算机都不能独立工作,只有微型计算机系统才是完整的信息处理系统,才具有实用意义。

There are three levels of micro-computer system from global to local: micro-computer system, micro-computer, microprocessor (CPU). Only the microcomputer system is a complete information processing system, which has practical significance.

一个完整的微型计算机系统包括硬件系统和软件系统两大部分。硬件系统由运算器、控制器、存储器( 含内存、外存和缓存)、各种输入输出设备组成,采用“ 指令驱动”方式工作。

A complete microcomputer system includes two parts: hardware system and software system. The hardware system is composed of arithmetic unit, controller, memory (including memory, external memory and cache), various input and output devices, and works in the “instruction driven” mode.

软件系统可分为系统软件和应用软件。系统软件是指管理、监控和维护计算机资源(包括硬件和软件)的软件。它主要包括:操作系统、各种语言处理程序、数据库管理系统以及各种工具软件等。其中操作系统是系统软件的核心,用户只有通过操作系统才能完成对计算机的各种操作。应用软件是为某种应用目的而编制的计算机程序,如文字处理软件、图形图像处理软件、网络通信软件、财务管理软件、CAD 软件、各种程序包等。

Software system can be divided into system software and application software. System software refers to the software that manages, monitors and maintains computer resources (including hardware and software). It mainly includes: operating system, various language processing programs, database management system and various tools and software. The operating system is the core of the system software. Only through the operating system can users complete all kinds of operations on the computer. Application software is a kind of computer program for some application purposes, such as word processing software, graphics and image processing software, network communication software, financial management software, CAD software, various packages, etc.

微型计算机的发展通常以微处理器芯片 CPU 的发展为基点。当一种新型 CPU 研制成功,一年之内,相应的软硬件配套产品就会推出,进而使微型计算机系统的性能得到进一步完善,这样只需两三年的时间就会形成一代新的微型计算机产品。美国 Intel 公司在微处理器的生产商一直处于主导地位。事实上,到目前为止,微型计算机的历史也就是 Intel 微处理器的发展史。

The development of microcomputers is usually based on the development of microprocessor-based CPU. When a new type of CPU is developed successfully, within one year, the corresponding software and hardware supporting products will be launched, which will further improve the performance of the microcomputer system, so that a new generation of microcomputer products will be formed in only two or three years. Intel has always been the leading manufacturer of microprocessors. In fact, so far, the history of microcomputers is the development history of Intel microprocessors.


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