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【速搜问答】电子支付系统是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-06-04) 600次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

电子支付系统是指由提供支付服务的中介机构、管理货币转移的法规以及实现支付的电子信息技术手段共同组成的,即把新型支付手段的支付信息通过网络安全传送到银行或相应的处理机构,来实现电子支付。

The electronic payment system is composed of the intermediary agencies providing payment services, the laws and regulations governing currency transfer and the electronic information technology means to realize payment. That is to say, the payment information of the new payment means is transmitted to the bank or the corresponding processing agency through the network security to realize the electronic payment.

电子支付系统是指由提供支付服务的中介机构、管理货币转移的法规以及实现支付的电子信息技术手段共同组成的,用来清偿经济活动参加者在获取实物资产或金融资产时所承担的债务。即把新型支付手段(包括电子现金、信用卡、借记卡、智能卡等)的支付信息通过网络安全传送到银行或相应的处理机构,来实现电子支付。因此,电子支付系统是电子交易顺利进行的重要社会基础设施之一,也是社会经济良好运行的基础和催化剂。

The electronic payment system is composed of the intermediary institutions providing payment services, the laws and regulations governing currency transfer and the electronic information technology means to realize payment, which is used to pay off the debts borne by the participants in economic activities when they acquire physical assets or financial assets. That is to say, the payment information of new payment means (including e-cash, credit card, debit card, smart card, etc.) is transmitted to the bank or the corresponding processing agency through network security to realize e-payment. Therefore, electronic payment system is not only one of the important social infrastructure for electronic transactions, but also the foundation and catalyst for the sound operation of social economy.

组成内容

Composition

电子支付系统是实现网上支付的基础.电子支付系统的发展方向是兼容多种支付工具,但目前的各种支付工具之间存在较大差异,分别有自己的特点和运作模式,适用于不同的交易过程.因此当前的多种电子支付系统通常只是针对某一种支付工具而设计的.Mondex 系统、First Virtual 系统和 FSTC 系统是目前使用的几种主要的电子支付系统。

E-payment system is the basis of online payment. The development direction of e-payment system is to be compatible with a variety of payment tools, but there are great differences among various payment tools at present, which have their own characteristics and operation modes, and are suitable for different transaction processes. Therefore, the current multiple e-payment systems are usually designed for a certain payment tool Virtual system and FSTC system are the main electronic payment systems.

支付系统是指由提供支付服务的中介机构、管理货币转移的法规以及实现支付的技术手段共同组成的,用来清偿经济活动参加者在获取实物资产或金融资产时所承担债务的一种特定方式与安排。因此支付系统是重要的社会基础设施之一。

Payment system is a special way and arrangement, which is composed of intermediary institutions providing payment services, laws and regulations governing currency transfer and technical means to realize payment. It is used to pay off debts incurred by participants in economic activities when they acquire physical assets or financial assets. Therefore, payment system is one of the important social infrastructure.

各种不同的支付系统通常是与各种不同的经济相联系在一起的。经济社会曾经使用过各种形态的货币在商品交换中转移价值。从最初的实物交换发展到商品货币(例如贵金属)标志着社会生产力的进步。

Different payment systems are usually linked to different economies. Economic society has used various forms of money to transfer value in commodity exchange. The development from the original physical exchange to commodity currency (such as precious metals) marks the progress of social productivity.

而法定货币的出现则是支付工具发展史上的第一次飞跃,银行存款作为支付手段是货币制度的一大进步。用电子形式的支付工具完全取代纸凭证形式的现金和非现金支付工具在技术上是完全可以实现的。人们把电子支付工具看成是支付工具发展史上第二次飞跃或革命。

The emergence of legal tender is the first leap in the history of payment instrument. As a means of payment, bank deposit is a great progress of monetary system. It can be realized technically that electronic payment instrument can completely replace paper voucher cash and non cash payment instrument. People regard electronic payment tools as the second leap or revolution in the development history of payment tools.

网上支付是电子支付系统的发展和创新。传统的银行结算支付指令的传递完全依靠面对面的手工处理和经过邮政、电信部门的委托传递,因而存在着结算成本高、凭证传递时间长、在途资金占压大、资金周转慢等问题。电子资金转账系统缩短了银行之间支付指令的传递时间,并减少了在途资金的占压。

Online payment is the development and innovation of electronic payment system. The traditional transfer of bank settlement and payment instructions completely relies on face-to-face manual processing and entrusted transfer by postal and telecommunication departments, so there are problems such as high settlement cost, long voucher transfer time, large occupation of funds in transit and slow capital turnover. Electronic funds transfer system shortens the delivery time of payment instructions between banks and reduces the occupation of funds in transit.

基于互联网的电子交易支付系统由客户、商家、认证中心、支付网关、客户银行、商家银行和金融专用网络七个部分组成。

The electronic transaction payment system based on Internet consists of seven parts: customer, merchant, certification center, payment gateway, customer bank, merchant bank and financial special network.

主要分类

Main categories

大额支付

Large payment

主要处理银行间大额资金转账,通常支付的发起方和接收方都是商业银行或在中央银行开设账户的金融机构。大额系统是一个国家支付体系的核心应用系统。现在的趋势是,大额系统通常由中央银行运行,处理贷记转账,当然也有由私营部门运行的大额支付系统,这类系统对支付交易虽然可做实时处理,但要在日终进行净额资金清算。大额系统处理的支付业务量很少(1%~10%),但资金额超过 90%,因此大额支付系统中的风险管理特别重要。

It mainly deals with the transfer of large amount of funds between banks. Generally, the initiator and receiver of the payment are commercial banks or financial institutions that open accounts with the central bank. Large sum system is the core application system of a national payment system. The current trend is that large amount systems are usually operated by the central bank to process credit transfers, and of course, there are also large amount payment systems operated by the private sector. Although such systems can process payment transactions in real time, they need to carry out net fund clearing at the end of the day. The large payment system deals with a small amount of payment business (1% – 10%), but the amount of capital exceeds 90%. Therefore, the risk management in the large payment system is particularly important.

小额支付

Small payment

主要指 ACH(自动清算所),主要处理预先授权的定期贷记(如发放工资)或定期借记(如公共设施缴费)。支付数据以磁介质或数据通信方式提交清算所。

Mainly refers to ach (automatic clearing house), which mainly deals with pre authorized regular credit (such as salary payment) or regular debit (such as public facilities payment). Payment data shall be submitted to clearing house by magnetic medium or data communication.

联机支付

Online payment

指 POSEFT 和 ATM 系统,其支付工具为银行卡(信用卡、借记卡或 ATM 卡、电子现金等)。主要特点是金额小、业务量大,交易资金采用净额结算(但 POSEFT 和 ATM 中需要对支付实时授信)

It refers to post ft and ATM system, and its payment instrument is bank card (credit card, debit card or ATM card, e-cash, etc.). The main features are small amount, large business volume, and net settlement of transaction funds (but real-time credit for payment is required in post ft and ATM)

支付模式

Payment mode

电子支付不是新概念,从 1998 年招商银行率先推出网上银行业务之后,人们便开始接触到网上缴费、网上交易和移动银行业务。这个阶段,银行的电子支付系统无疑是主导力量,但银行自身没有足够的动力也没有足够的精力去扩展不同行业的中小型商家参与电子支付。于是非银行类的企业开始进入支付领域,它们通常被称为第三方电子支付公司。目前,我国主要存在四种模式:支付网关型模式、自建支付平台模式、第三方垫付模式、多种支付手段结合模式。

Electronic payment is not a new concept. Since China Merchants Bank took the lead in launching online banking business in 1998, people have begun to contact online payment, online transaction and mobile banking business. At this stage, the bank’s e-payment system is undoubtedly the leading force, but the bank itself does not have enough power and energy to expand the participation of small and medium-sized businesses in different industries in e-payment. As a result, non bank enterprises began to enter the field of payment, they are often called third-party electronic payment companies. At present, there are four modes in China: payment gateway mode, self built payment platform mode, third-party advance payment mode and multiple payment means combination mode.

1、支付网关型模式

1. Payment gateway mode

支付网关型模式是指一些具有较强银行接口技术的第三方支付公司以中介的形式分别连接商家和银行,从而完成商家的电子支付的模式。这样的第三方支付公司包括网银在线、上海环讯、北京首信等,它们只是商家到银行的通道而不是真正的支付平台,它们的收入主要是与银行的二次结算获得的分成,一旦商家和银行直接相连,这种模式就会因为附加值低而最容易被抛弃。

Payment gateway mode refers to the mode that some third-party payment companies with strong bank interface technology connect merchants and banks respectively in the form of intermediary to complete the electronic payment of merchants. Such third-party payment companies include online banking, Shanghai huanxun, Beijing Shouxin, etc. they are only the channel from merchants to the bank rather than the real payment platform. Their income is mainly the share obtained from the secondary settlement with the bank. Once the merchants are directly connected with the bank, this mode will be abandoned most easily because of the low added value.

2、自建支付平台模式

2. Self built payment platform mode

自建支付平台模式是指由拥有庞大用户群体的大型电子商务公司为主创建或它们自己创建支付平台的模式,这种模式的实质便是以所创建的支付平台作为信用中介,在买家确认收到商品前,代替买卖双方暂时保管货款。这种担保使得买卖双方的交易风险得到控制,主要解决了交易中的安全问题,容易保证消费者的忠诚度。采用自建支付平台模式的企业有淘宝网、eBay 易趣、慧聪网、贝宝等。这种支付平台主要服务于母公司的主营业务,其发展也取决于母公司平台的大小。

Self built payment platform mode refers to the mode that a large-scale e-commerce company with a large user group mainly creates or creates its own payment platform. The essence of this mode is to use the created payment platform as a credit intermediary to temporarily keep the payment for goods on behalf of the buyer and the seller before the buyer confirms the receipt of the goods. This kind of guarantee can control the transaction risk of the buyer and the seller, mainly solve the security problem in the transaction, and easily guarantee the loyalty of consumers. Enterprises adopting self built payment platform mode include Taobao, eBay eBay, Huicong, PayPal, etc. This kind of payment platform mainly serves the main business of the parent company, and its development also depends on the size of the parent company platform.

3、第三方垫付模式

3. Third party advanced payment mode

第三方垫付模式是指由第三方支付公司为买家垫付资金或设立虚拟账户的模式。它通过买卖双方在交易平台内部开立的账号,以虚拟资金为介质完成网上交易款项支付,这样的公司有 99bill、Yeepay 等。

The third-party advance payment mode refers to the mode that the third-party payment company advances funds or establishes a virtual account for the buyer. It uses the account opened by the buyer and the seller in the trading platform to complete online transaction payment with virtual capital as the medium. Such companies include 99bill, YeePay, etc.

4、多种支付手段结合模式

4. Combination mode of multiple payment means

多种支付手段结合模式是指第三方电子支付公司利用电话支付、移动支付和网上支付等多种方式提供支付平台的模式。在这种模式中,客户可以通过拨打电话、手机短信或者银行卡等形式进行电子支付。

The combination mode of multiple payment means refers to the mode that the third-party e-payment company provides payment platform by means of telephone payment, mobile payment and online payment. In this mode, customers can make electronic payment by calling, SMS or bank card.

支付流程

Payment process

支付系统的数据流可以分为基于商家转发的和非商家转发的两种模式,本系统根据目前我国电子商务交易采用基于非商家转发的模式,从客户发起购买请求到客户收到商品、商家收到资金,完成整个交易过程,需要经过如下的支付流程:

The data flow of the payment system can be divided into two modes based on merchant forwarding and non merchant forwarding. According to the current mode based on non merchant forwarding in China’s e-commerce transactions, the system completes the whole transaction process from the customer initiating the purchase request to the customer receiving the goods and the merchant receiving the funds, which requires the following payment process:

1、用户浏览电子商务网站,选者中意的商品,向商家提出购买请求。

1. Users browse e-commerce websites, select products they like, and make purchase requests to businesses.

2、商家将经用户核对后的订单进行数字签名,提交到支付系统。

2. The merchant will digitally sign the order checked by the user and submit it to the payment system.

3、支付网关调用支付界面,要求用户填写帐户信息。

3. The payment gateway calls the payment interface and requires the user to fill in the account information.

4、用户用支付系统的支付网关的公开密钥对帐户信息进行加密,传递给支付系统的支付网关;

4. The user encrypts the account information with the public key of the payment gateway of the payment system and transmits it to the payment gateway of the payment system;

5、支付系统支付网关核对用户提供的帐户信息进行数据转换,通过金融专网或者专线发给金融机构,要求核对用户帐户信息。

5. The payment gateway of the payment system checks the account information provided by the user for data conversion, and sends it to the financial institution through the financial private network or special line, and requests to check the user account information.

6、金融机构将核对的结果和用户用于支付确认的信息传递给支付系统。

6. The financial institution transmits the result of verification and the information used by the user for payment confirmation to the payment system.

7、支付系统将金融机构传递来的用户支付确认信息传递给支付确认系统,要求进行支付确认。

7. The payment system transmits the user’s payment confirmation information from the financial institutions to the payment confirmation system, which requires payment confirmation.

8、支付确认系统接收到要求确认的信息后,进行支付确认预处理,然后按事先选择好的确认方式通知用户(实时确认、分时确认)进行确认。

8. After receiving the information required to be confirmed, the payment confirmation system conducts the pre-processing of payment confirmation, and then informs the user (real-time confirmation, time-sharing confirmation) according to the pre selected confirmation mode to confirm.

9、用户根据选择的确认方式,进行相应的确认资料的填写,填写好后提交给支付确认系统。

9. The user fills in the corresponding confirmation data according to the selected confirmation method and submits it to the payment confirmation system.

10、支付确认系统比较金融机构和用户提交的支付确认信息,如果一致则进行下一步的确认,否则返回错误,最后支付确认系统将确认结果返回给支付系统支付网关。

10. The payment confirmation system compares the payment confirmation information submitted by financial institutions and users. If it is consistent, the next step of confirmation will be carried out. Otherwise, an error will be returned. Finally, the payment confirmation system will return the confirmation result to the payment gateway of the payment system.

11、确认成功,以 E-MAIL 的方式告知用户他的支付请求被认可,资金己经从他的帐户上划出,否则以 E-MAIL 的方式告知用户,他的支付请求不被认可。

11. If the confirmation is successful, E-mail shall be used to inform the user that his payment request is approved and the fund has been transferred out of his account. Otherwise, E-mail shall be used to inform the user that his payment request is not approved.

12、确认成功,数字签名金融机构的返回结果发送给商家,并通知商家发货,否则通知商家交易失败;

12. If the confirmation is successful, the return result of the digital signature financial institution shall be sent to the merchant, and the merchant shall be notified to deliver the goods, otherwise, the merchant shall be notified of the failure of the transaction;

13、确认成功,要求金融机构划款。

13. The confirmation is successful and financial institutions are required to transfer funds.

14、金融机构返回数字签名的划款信息,完成交易

14. The financial institution returns the transfer information with digital signature to complete the transaction

保密协议

Confidentiality agreement

电子支付系统的安全要求包括:保密性、认证、数据完整性、交互操作性等。目前,国内外使用的保障电子支付系统安全的协议包括:SSL(Secure SocketLay-er,安全套接字层)、SET(Secure Electronic Transaction)等协议标准。

The security requirements of electronic payment system include: confidentiality, authentication, data integrity, interoperability, etc. At present, the protocols used at home and abroad to ensure the security of electronic payment system include: SSL (secure socket layer), set (secure electronic transaction) and other protocol standards.

SSL 协议

SSL Protocol

安全套接层方法(Secure Socket Layer,SSL)协议在网络上普遍使用,能保证双方通信时数据的完整性、保密性和互操作性,在安全要求不太高时可用。它包括:

Secure socket layer (SSL) protocol is widely used in the network, which can ensure the integrity, confidentiality and interoperability of data when both sides communicate, and can be used when the security requirements are not too high. It includes:

(1)握手协议。即在传送信息之前,先发送握手信息以相互确认对方的身份。确认身份后,双方共同持有一个共享密钥。

(1) Handshake protocol. That is, before transmitting information, the handshake information is sent to confirm each other’s identity. After the identity is confirmed, both parties hold a shared key.

(2)消息加密协议。即双方握手后,用对方证书(RSA 公钥)加密一随机密钥,再用随机密钥加密双方的信息流,实现保密性。

(2) Message encryption protocol. After the handshake, a random key is encrypted with the RSA public key, and then the information flow of both sides is encrypted with the random key to realize the security.

由于他被 IE,NESCAPE 等浏览器所内置,实现起来非常方便。目前的 B-C 网上支付大多采用这种办法。利用招商银行提供的网上支付接口可以很方便的实现基于此协议的网上支付。

Because it is built by ie, nescape and other browsers, it is very convenient to implement. Most of the current B-C online payment adopts this method. Using the online payment interface provided by China Merchants Bank can easily realize online payment based on this protocol.

SSL 使用加密的办法建立一个安全的通信通道以便将客户的信用卡号传送给商家。它等价于使用一个安全电话连接将用户的信用卡通过电话读给商家。

SSL uses encryption to establish a secure communication channel to transmit the customer’s credit card number to the merchant. It is equivalent to using a secure phone connection to read the user’s credit card to the merchant over the phone.

SSL 交易过程图

SSL transaction process chart

虽然 SSL 握手协议可以用于双方互相确认身份,但实际上基本只使用客户认证服务器身份,即单方面认证。这一协议不能防止心术不正的商家的欺诈,因为该商家掌握了客户的信用卡号。商家欺诈是 SSL 协议所面临的最严重的问题之一。另外由于加密算法受到美国加密出口的限制,浏览器和 WebServer 都存在所谓的”512/40″的问题。既 DES 对称加密为 40 位,RSA 加密为 512 位。加密强度偏低使 B-C 的 SSL 协议难于推广到有更高要求的 B-B 领域。

Although SSL handshake protocol can be used to confirm the identity of both parties, in fact, it only uses the client authentication server identity, that is, unilateral authentication. This agreement can’t prevent the fraud of the unscrupulous merchant who has the customer’s credit card number. Merchant fraud is one of the most serious problems in SSL protocol. In addition, because the encryption algorithm is limited by the US encryption export, there are so-called “512 / 40” problems in browser and webserver. Both des symmetric encryption is 40 bits, RSA encryption is 512 bits. The low encryption strength makes the SSL protocol of B-C difficult to be extended to the B-B field with higher requirements.


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