• 欢迎访问速搜资源吧,如果在网站上找不到你需要的资源,可以在留言板上留言,管理员会尽量满足你!

【速搜问答】签名算法是什么

问答 admin 2年前 (2020-06-03) 429次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

签名算法是指数字签名的算法。数字签名就是只有信息的发送者才能产生的别人无法伪造的一段数字串,这段数字串同时也是对信息的发送者发送信息真实性的一个有效证明。

Signature algorithm refers to the algorithm of digital signature. Digital signature is a digital string that can not be forged by others only by the sender of information. This digital string is also an effective proof of the authenticity of the information sent by the sender.

签名算法是指数字签名的算法。数字签名,就是只有信息的发送者才能产生的别人无法伪造的一段数字串,这段数字串同时也是对信息的发送者发送信息真实性的一个有效证明。数字签名是通过一个单向函数,对要传送的信息进行处理得到的用以认证信息来源,并核实信息在传送过程中是否发生变化的一个字母数字串。应用最为广泛的三种签名算法是:Rabin 签名、DSS 签名、RSA 签名。

Signature algorithm refers to the algorithm of digital signature. Digital signature is a digital string that can not be forged by others only by the sender of information. This digital string is also an effective proof of the authenticity of the information sent by the sender. Digital signature is an alphanumeric string, which is obtained by processing the information to be transmitted through a one-way function to authenticate the information source and verify whether the information changes in the transmission process. The three most widely used signature algorithms are Rabin signature, DSS signature and RSA signature.

基本概念

Basic concepts

签名算法是指数字签名的算法。数字签名(又称公钥数字签名、电子签章)是一种类似写在纸上的普通的物理签名,但是使用了公钥加密领域的技术实现,用于鉴别数字信息的方法。一套数字签名通常定义两种互补的运算,一个用于签名,另一个用于验证。

Signature algorithm refers to the algorithm of digital signature. Digital signature (also known as public key digital signature and electronic signature) is a kind of common physical signature similar to that written on paper, but it uses the technology in the field of public key encryption to realize the method of identifying digital information. A set of digital signatures usually defines two complementary operations, one for signature and the other for verification.

数字签名是通过一个单向函数,对要传送的信息进行处理得到的用以认证信息来源,并核实信息在传送过程中是否发生变化的一个字母数字串。数字签名提供了对信息来源的确定并能检测信息是否被篡改。数字签名要实现的功能是我们平常的手写签名要实现功能的扩展。平常在书面文件上签名的主要作用有两点,一是因为对自己的签名本人难以否认,从而确定了文件已被自己签署这一事实;二是因为自己的签名不易被别人模仿,从而确定了文件是真的这一事实。采用数字签名,也能完成这些功能:

Digital signature is an alphanumeric string, which is obtained by processing the information to be transmitted through a one-way function to authenticate the information source and verify whether the information changes in the transmission process. Digital signature can determine the source of information and detect whether the information has been tampered. The function of digital signature is the extension of our usual handwritten signature. There are two main functions of signing on written documents. One is that it is hard for me to deny my signature, so that I can confirm the fact that the document has been signed by myself; the other is that my signature is not easy to be imitated by others, so that I can confirm the fact that the document is true. With digital signature, these functions can also be completed:

(1)确认信息是由签名者发送的;

(1) The confirmation information is sent by the signer;

(2)确认信息自签名后到收到为止,未被修改过。

(2) The confirmation information has not been modified since it was signed until it was received.

数字签名算法有映象式和印记式两类。由于印记式的签名速度和验证速度比映象式快得多,因此印记式数字签名算法更为实用。

There are two kinds of digital signature algorithms: mapping and imprinting. Since the signature speed and verification speed of the imprint are much faster than that of the image, the imprint digital signature algorithm is more practical.

实现方法

Implementation method

实现数字签名有很多方法,数字签名采用较多的是公钥加密技术,同时应用最为广泛的三种是:Hash 签名、DSA 签名、RSA 签名。

There are many ways to realize digital signature. The public key encryption technology is widely used in digital signature. At the same time, the three most widely used are: hash signature, DSA signature and RSA signature.

对称密钥密码算法进行数字签名

Digital signature based on symmetric key cryptography

对称密钥密码算法所用的加密密钥和解密密钥通常是相同的,即使不同也可以很容易地由其中的任意一个推导出另一个。在此算法中,加、解密双方所用的密钥都要保守秘密。

The encryption key and decryption key used in symmetric key cryptography are usually the same, even if they are different, it is easy to deduce one from the other. In this algorithm, both encryption and decryption keys should be kept secret.

Lamport 发明了称为 Lamport.Difle 的对称算法:利用一组长度是报文的比特数(n)两倍的密钥 A,来产生对签名的验证信息,即随机选择 2n 个数 B,由签名密钥对这 2n 个数 B 进行一次加密交换,得到另一组 2n 个数 C。

Lamport invented what’s called Lamport.Difle A group of key a, which is twice as long as the number of bits (n) of the message, is used to generate the verification information of the signature, that is, 2n number B is randomly selected, and then the 2n number B is encrypted once by the signature key, and another group of 2n number C is obtained.

发送和接收的方式如下:

The sending and receiving methods are as follows:

(1)发送

(1) Send

发送方从报文分组 M 的第一位开始,检查 M 的第 i 位:

The sender starts from the first bit of message packet m and checks the i-th bit of M:

M 的第 i 位为 0 时,取密钥 A 的第 i 位;M 的第 i 位为 1 时,取密钥 A 的第 i+1 位。

When the i-th bit of M is 0, the i-th bit of key a is taken; when the i-th bit of M is 1, the I + 1-th bit of key a is taken.

直至报文全部检查完毕,所选取的 n 个密钥位形成了最后的签名。

Until all messages are checked, the selected n key bits form the final signature.

(2)接收

(2) Receive

接受方对签名进行验证,从第一位开始依次检查报文 M:

The receiver verifies the signature, and checks the message M successively from the first bit:

M 的第 i 位为 0 时,签名中的第 i 组信息是密钥 A 的第 i 位;M 的第 i 位为 1 时,签名中的第 i 组信息为密钥 A 的第 i+1 位。

When the i-th bit of M is 0, the i-th group information in the signature is the i-th bit of key a; when the i-th bit of M is 1, the i-th group information in the signature is the I + 1-th bit of key a.

直至报文全部验证完毕后,就得到了 n 个密钥,由于接受方发送验证信息 c,所以可以利用得到的 n 个密钥检验验证信息,从而确认报文是否是由发送方所发送。

Until all messages are verified, n keys are obtained. Since the receiver sends verification information C, the N keys can be used to verify the verification information, so as to confirm whether the message is sent by the sender.

Hash 签名

Hash signature

单向函数的概念是计算起来相对容易,但求逆却非常困难。也就是说,已知 X,我们很容易计算 f(X)。但已知 f(X),却难于计算出 X。

The concept of one-way function is relatively easy to calculate, but it is very difficult to find the inverse. That is to say, given x, we can easily calculate f (x). But when f (x) is known, it is difficult to calculate X.

单向 Hash 函数有很多名字:压缩函数、缩短函数、消息摘要、指纹等。单向 Hash 函数 H(M)对一则任意长度的消息进行处理,返回一个具有固定长度 m 的散列值 h:

One way hash functions have many names: compression function, shortening function, message digest, fingerprint, etc. One way hash function H (m) processes a message of any length and returns a hash value H with a fixed length m:

h=H(M),其中 h 的长度为 m=H(M)具有以下属性:

H = H (m), where the length of H is m = H (m) with the following attributes:

(1)给定 M,很容易计算出 h,这表现了函数的快速性;

(1) Given m, it is easy to calculate h, which shows the rapidity of the function;

(2)给定 h,很难计算出满足 H(M)=h 的 M,这表现了函数的单向性;

(2) Given h, it is difficult to calculate m satisfying H (m) = h, which shows the unidirectionality of the function;

(3)给定 M1,很难找到一则消息 M2,使得 H(M1)=H(M2);

(3) Given M1, it is difficult to find a message m2, so that h (M1) = H (M2);

(4)h=H(M),h 的每一比特都与 M 的每一比特有关,并有高度敏感性。即每改变 M 的一比特,都将对 h 产生明显影响;

(4) H = H (m), each bit of H is related to each bit of M, and has high sensitivity. That is to say, every bit of M changes will have a significant impact on H;

(5)Hash 函数除了信息 M 自身之外,应该基于发信方的秘密信息对信息 M 进行确认;

(5) In addition to information m itself, hash function should confirm information m based on the secret information of the sender;

(6)输入数据 M 没有长度限制;

(6) Input data M has no length limit;

(7)对输入任何长度的 M 数据能够生成该输入报文固定长度的输出。

(7) The fixed length output of the input message can be generated for M data of any length.


速搜资源网 , 版权所有丨如未注明 , 均为原创丨转载请注明原文链接:【速搜问答】签名算法是什么
喜欢 (0)
[361009623@qq.com]
分享 (0)
发表我的评论
取消评论
表情 贴图 加粗 删除线 居中 斜体 签到

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址