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【速搜问答】Android是什么

问答 admin 1个月前 (04-23) 158次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

安卓是一种基于Linux内核(不包含GNU组件)的自由及开放源代码的操作系统。主要使用于移动设备,如智能手机和平板电脑,由Google公司和开放手机联盟领导及开发。

Android is a free and open source operating system based on Linux kernel (excluding GNU components). Mainly used in mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, led and developed by Google and the open mobile alliance.

安卓是一种基于 Linux 内核(不包含 GNU 组件)的自由及开放源代码的操作系统。主要使用于移动设备,如智能手机和平板电脑,由 Google 公司和开放手机联盟领导及开发。Android 操作系统最初由 Andy Rubin 开发,主要支持手机。2005 年 8 月由 Google 收购注资。2007 年 11 月,Google 与 84 家硬件制造商、软件开发商及电信营运商组建开放手机联盟共同研发改良 Android 系统。随后 Google 以 Apache 开源许可证的授权方式,发布了 Android 的源代码。第一部 Android 智能手机发布于 2008 年 10 月。Android 逐渐扩展到平板电脑及其他领域上,如电视、数码相机、游戏机、智能手表等。2011 年第一季度,Android 在全球的市场份额首次超过塞班系统,跃居全球第一。 2013 年的第四季度,Android 平台手机的全球市场份额已经达到 78.1%。2013 年 09 月 24 日谷歌开发的操作系统 Android 在迎来了 5 岁生日,全世界采用这款系统的设备数量已经达到 10 亿台。

Android is a free and open source operating system based on Linux kernel (excluding GNU components). Mainly used in mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, led and developed by Google and the open mobile alliance. Android operating system was originally developed by Andy Rubin, mainly supporting mobile phones. It was acquired and funded by Google in August 2005. In November 2007, Google and 84 hardware manufacturers, software developers and telecom operators formed an open mobile phone alliance to jointly develop and improve Android system. Then Google released the Android source code in the form of Apache open source license. The first Android smartphone was released in October 2008. Android has gradually expanded to tablet computers and other fields, such as TV, digital cameras, game consoles, smart watches, etc. In the first quarter of 2011, Android surpassed Symbian for the first time in the global market share, ranking first in the world. In the fourth quarter of 2013, the global market share of Android platform mobile phones has reached 78.1%. On September 24, 2013, Android, the operating system developed by Google, was on its fifth birthday. The number of devices using this system in the world has reached 1 billion.

2014 第一季度 Android 平台已占所有移动广告流量来源的 42.8%,首度超越 iOS。但运营收入不及 iOS。

In the first quarter of 2014, Android platform accounted for 42.8% of all mobile advertising traffic sources, surpassing IOS for the first time. But operating revenue is less than IOS.

系统简介

System introduction

Android 一词的本义指“机器人”,同时也是 Google 于 2007 年 11 月 5 日宣布的基于 Linux 平台的开源手机操作系统的名称,该平台由操作系统、中间件、用户界面和应用软件组成。

The original meaning of Android refers to “robot”, which is also the name of open source mobile operating system based on Linux platform announced by Google on November 5, 2007. The platform consists of operating system, middleware, user interface and application software.

Android 一词最早出现于法国作家利尔亚当(Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam)在 1886 年发表的科幻小说《未来夏娃》(L’ève future)中。他将外表像人的机器起名为 Android。

The word Android first appeared in the science fiction l’eve future published by Auguste Villiers de l’isle-adam in 1886. He named the humanoid machine Android.

Android 的 Logo 是由 Ascender 公司设计的,诞生于 2010 年,其设计灵感源于男女厕所门上的图形符号,于是布洛克绘制了一个简单的机器人,它的躯干就像锡罐的形状,头上还有两根天线,Android 小机器人便诞生了。其中的文字使用了 Ascender 公司专门制作的称之为“Droid ” 的字体。Android 是一个全身绿色的机器人,绿色也是 Android 的标志。颜色采用了 PMS 376C 和 RGB 中十六进制的#A4C639 来绘制,这是 Android 操作系统的品牌象徵。有时候,它们还会使用纯文字的 Logo。

Android logo was designed by ascender company, and was born in 2010. Its design inspiration comes from the graphic symbols on the door of men’s and women’s toilets. So block drew a simple robot. Its body is like the shape of a tin can, and there are two antennas on its head. Then Android small robot was born. The text uses a special font called “droid” made by ascender company. Android is a green robot, and green is also the symbol of Android. The color is drawn with hex ා a4c639 in PMS 376c and RGB, which is the brand symbol of Android operating system. Sometimes, they use plain text logos.

2012 年 7 月美国科技博客网站 BusinessInsider 评选出二十一世纪十款最重要电子产品,Android 操作系统和 iPhone 等榜上有名。

In July 2012, business insider, the US technology blog, selected the top 10 most important electronic products in the 21st century, including Android operating system and iPhone.

(Android logo 相关图片相册图片来源:)

(Android logo related photo album photo source:)

发展历程

development history

2003 年 10 月,Andy Rubin 等人创建 Android 公司,并组建 Android 团队。

In October 2003, Andy Rubin and others founded Android company and formed Android team.

2005 年 8 月 17 日,Google 低调收购了成立仅 22 个月的高科技企业 Android 及其团队。安迪鲁宾成为 Google 公司工程部副总裁,继续负责 Android 项目。

On August 17, 2005, Google acquired Android and its team, a 22 month old high-tech company. Andy Rubin became Google’s vice president of engineering and continues to lead the Android project.

2007 年 11 月 5 日,谷歌公司正式向外界展示了这款名为 Android 的操作系统,并且在这天谷歌宣布建立一个全球性的联盟组织,该组织由 34 家手机制造商、软件开发商、电信运营商以及芯片制造商共同组成,并与 84 家硬件制造商、软件开发商及电信营运商组成开放手持设备联盟(Open Handset Alliance)来共同研发改良 Android 系统,这一联盟将支持谷歌发布的手机操作系统以及应用软件,Google 以 Apache 免费开源许可证的授权方式,发布了 Android 的源代码。

On November 5, 2007, Google officially demonstrated the Android operating system to the outside world, and on that day, Google announced the establishment of a global alliance, which is composed of 34 mobile phone manufacturers, software developers, telecom operators and chip manufacturers, and 84 Hardware manufacturers, software developers and telecom operators formed the Open Handset Alliance to jointly develop and improve Android system. This alliance will support the mobile operating system and application software released by Google. Google released the source code of Android in the way of Apache free open source license.

2008 年,在 GoogleI/O 大会上,谷歌提出了 AndroidHAL 架构图,在同年 8 月 18 号,Android 获得了美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)的批准,在 2008 年 9 月,谷歌正式发布了 Android 1.0 系统,这也是 Android 系统最早的版本。

In 2008, at the Google I / O conference, Google proposed the Android Hal architecture. On August 18 of the same year, Android was approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In September 2008, Google officially released Android 1.0 system, which is the earliest version of Android system.

2009 年 4 月,谷歌正式推出了 Android 1.5 这款手机,从 Android 1.5 版本开始,谷歌开始将 Android 的版本以甜品的名字命名,Android 1.5 命名为 Cupcake(纸杯蛋糕)。该系统与 Android 1.0 相比有了很大的改进。

In April 2009, Google officially launched Android 1.5. From Android 1.5, Google began to name Android version after dessert, and Android 1.5 was named cupcake. This system has a great improvement compared with Android 1.0.

2009 年 9 月,谷歌发布了 Android 1.6 的正式版,并且推出了搭载 Android 1.6 正式版的手机 HTC Hero(G3),凭借着出色的外观设计以及全新的 Android 1.6 操作系统,HTC Hero(G3)成为当时全球最受欢迎的手机。Android 1.6 也有一个有趣的甜品名称,它被称为 Donut(甜甜圈)。

In September 2009, Google released the official version of Android 1.6, and launched HTC Hero (G3), a mobile phone equipped with the official version of Android 1.6. With its excellent appearance design and the new Android 1.6 operating system, HTC Hero (G3) became the most popular mobile phone in the world at that time. Android 1.6 also has an interesting dessert name called donut.

2010 年 2 月,Linux 内核开发者 Greg Kroah-Hartman 将 Android 的驱动程序从 Linux 内核“状态树”(“staging tree”)上除去,从此,Android 与 Linux 开发主流将分道扬镳。在同年 5 月份,谷歌正式发布了 Android 2.2 操作系统。谷歌将 Android 2.2 操作系统命名为 Froyo,翻译完名为冻酸奶。

In February 2010, Greg kroah Hartman, a Linux kernel developer, removed Android drivers from the “staging tree” of the Linux kernel. Since then, Android and Linux development mainstream will be separated. In May of the same year, Google officially released Android 2.2 operating system. Google named Android 2.2 as Froyo and translated it as frozen yogurt.

2010 年 10 月,谷歌宣布 Android 系统达到了第一个里程碑,即电子市场上获得官方数字认证的 Android 应用数量已经达到了 10 万个,Android 系统的应用增长非常迅速。在 2010 年 12 月,谷歌正式发布了 Android 2.3 操作系统 Gingerbread (姜饼)。

In October 2010, Google announced that Android system has reached the first milestone, that is, the number of Android applications that have obtained official digital certification in the electronic market has reached 100000, and the application growth of Android system is very rapid. In December 2010, Google officially released Gingerbread (Gingerbread), the Android 2.3 operating system.

2011 年 1 月,谷歌称每日的 Android 设备新用户数量达到了 30 万部,到 2011 年 7 月,这个数字增长到 55 万部,而 Android 系统设备的用户总数达到了 1.35 亿,Android 系统已经成为智能手机领域占有量最高的系统。

In January 2011, Google said that the number of new users of Android devices per day reached 300000. By July 2011, the number increased to 550000, while the total number of users of Android system devices reached 135 million. Android system has become the system with the highest share in the field of smart phones.

2011 年 8 月 2 日,Android 手机已占据全球智能机市场 48%的份额,并在亚太地区市场占据统治地位,终结了 Symbian(塞班系统)的霸主地位,跃居全球第一。

On August 2, 2011, Android mobile phones have occupied 48% of the global smartphone market and dominated the market in the Asia Pacific region, ending the dominance of Symbian (Symbian system) and leaping to the first place in the world.

2011 年 9 月,Android 系统的应用数目已经达到了 48 万,而在智能手机市场,Android 系统的占有率已经达到了 43%。继续在排在移动操作系统首位。谷歌将会发布全新的 Android 4.0 操作系统,这款系统被谷歌命名为 Ice Cream Sandwich(冰激凌三明治)。

In September 2011, the number of Android applications has reached 480000, while in the smartphone market, Android system has reached 43%. Continue to rank first in mobile operating systems. Google will release a new Android 4.0 operating system, named ice cream sandwich by Google.

2012 年 1 月 6 日,谷歌 Android Market 已有 10 万开发者推出超过 40 万活跃的应用,大多数的应用程序为免费。Android Market 应用程序商店目录在新年首周周末突破 40 万基准,距离突破 30 万应用仅 4 个月。在 2011 年早些时候,Android Market 从 20 万增加到 30 万应用也花了四个月。

On January 6, 2012, 100000 developers of Google Android Market launched more than 400000 active applications, most of which are free. The Android Market app store catalog broke the 400000 benchmark at the end of the first week of the new year, only four months from breaking the 300000 apps. Earlier in 2011, it took four months for Android Market to grow from 200000 to 300000 apps.

2013 年 11 月 1 日,Android4.4 正式发布,从具体功能上讲,Android4.4 提供了各种实用小功能,新的 Android 系统更智能,添加更多的 Emoji 表情图案,UI 的改进也更现代,如全新的 HelloiOS7 半透明效果。

On November 1, 2013, Android 4.4 was officially released. In terms of specific functions, Android 4.4 provides a variety of practical small functions. The new Android system is more intelligent, adding more Emoji emoticons, and UI improvements are more modern, such as the new helloos7 translucent effect.

2015 年,网络安全公司 Zimperium 研究人员警告,安卓(Android)存在“致命”安全漏洞,黑客发送一封彩信便能在用户毫不知情的情况下完全控制手机。

In 2015, researchers from zimperium, a network security company, warned that Android had a “fatal” security vulnerability, and that hackers could send a multimedia message to fully control the phone without the user’s knowledge.

2018 年 10 月,谷歌表示,将于 2018 年 12 月 6 日停止 Android 系统中的 Nearby Notifications(附近通知)服务,因为 Android 用户收到太多的附近商家推销信息的垃圾邮件。

In October 2018, Google said it would stop the nearby notifications service on Android on December 6, 2018, because Android users receive too many spam messages from nearby merchants.

2020 年 3 月,谷歌的 Android 安全公告中提到,新更新已经提供了 CVE-2020-0069 补丁来解决针对联发科芯片的一个严重安全漏洞。

In March 2020, Google’s Android security notice mentioned that the new update has provided a cve-2020-0069 patch to solve a serious security vulnerability targeted at MediaTek chip.

发行版本

Release

测试版本

Test version

Android 在正式发行之前,最开始拥有两个内部测试版本,并且以著名的机器人名称来对其进行命名,它们分别是:阿童木(AndroidBeta),发条机器人(Android 1.0)。后来由于涉及到版权问题,谷歌将其命名规则变更为用甜点作为它们系统版本的代号的命名方法。甜点命名法开始于 Android 1.5 发布的时候。作为每个版本代表的甜点的尺寸越变越大,然后按照 26 个字母数序:纸杯蛋糕(Android 1.5),甜甜圈(Android 1.6),松饼(Android 2.0/2.1),冻酸奶(Android 2.2),姜饼(Android 2.3),蜂巢(Android 3.0),冰激凌三明治(Android 4.0),果冻豆(Jelly Bean,Android4.1 和 Android 4.2),奇巧(KitKat,Android 4.4),棒棒糖(Lollipop,Android 5.0),棉花糖(Marshmallow,Android 6.0),牛轧糖(Nougat,Android 7.0),奥利奥(Oreo,Android 8.0),派(Pie,Android 9.0)

Before its official release, Android initially had two internal test versions, which were named after the famous robot names: Android beta and Android 1.0. Later, because of the copyright issue, Google changed its naming rules to use dessert as the naming method of their system version. Dessert nomenclature started when Android 1.5 was released. The size of the dessert represented by each version becomes larger and larger, and then in 26 alphabetical order: Cupcake (Android 1.5), doughnut (Android 1.6), Muffin (Android 2.0 / 2.1), frozen yogurt (Android 2.2), gingerbread (Android 2.3), beehive (Android 3.0), ice cream sandwich (Android 4.0), jelly bean (jelly bean, Android 4.1 and Android 4.2), KitKat (Android 4.4), lollipop (Android 5.0), marshmallow (Android 6.0), nougat (Android 7.0), Oreo (Android 8.0), pie (pie, Android 9.0)

Android 10 开始,Android 不会再按照基于美味零食或甜点的字母顺序命名,而是转换为版本号,就像 Windows 和 iOS 系统一样。

Starting with Android 10, Android will no longer be named alphabetically based on delicious snacks or desserts, but will be converted to version numbers, just like windows and IOS systems.

1.0 Beta

1.0 Beta

2007 年发布的 Android 阿童木。

Android Astro released in 2007.

1.0

One

主词条:Android 1.0

Main entry: Android 1.0

2008 年 9 月,谷歌发布 Android1.0。

In September 2008, Google released Android 1.0.

1.5

One point five

主词条:Android 1.5

Main entry: Android 1.5

Cupcake(纸杯蛋糕):2009 年 4 月 30 日发布。

Cupcake: released April 30, 2009.

主要的更新如下:

The main updates are as follows:

拍摄/播放影片,并支持上传到 Youtube;支持立体声蓝牙耳机,同时改善自动配对性能;最新的采用 WebKit 技术的浏览器,支持复制/贴上和页面中搜索;GPS 性能大大提高;提供屏幕虚拟键盘;主屏幕增加音乐播放器和相框 widgets;应用程序自动随着手机旋转;短信、Gmail、日历,浏览器的用户接口大幅改进,如 Gmail 可以批量删除邮件;相机启动速度加快,拍摄图片可以直接上传到 Picasa;来电照片显示。

Capture / play videos and upload them to YouTube; support stereo Bluetooth headset and improve auto pairing performance; the latest browser with WebKit technology supports copying / pasting and page searching; GPS performance is greatly improved; virtual keyboard on screen is provided; music player and photo frame are added to the main screen Widgets; the app automatically rotates with the mobile phone; SMS, Gmail, calendar, and the user interface of the browser are greatly improved, such as Gmail can delete emails in batches; the camera starts faster, and pictures can be directly uploaded to Picasa; incoming photos are displayed.

体系架构

Architecture

Android 的系统架构和其操作系统一样,采用了分层的架构。从架构图看,Android 分为四个层,从高层到低层分别是应用程序层、应用程序框架层、系统运行库层和 Linux 内核层。

Android’s system architecture is the same as its operating system, which adopts a layered architecture. From the perspective of architecture, Android is divided into four layers: application layer, application framework layer, system runtime layer and Linux kernel layer.

应用程序

application program

Android 会同一系列核心应用程序包一起发布,该应用程序包包括客户端,SMS 短消息程序,日历,地图,浏览器,联系人管理程序等。所有的应用程序都是使用 JAVA 语言编写的。

Android will be released together with a series of core application packages, including client, SMS short message program, calendar, map, browser, contact management program, etc. All applications are written in Java.

应用程序框架

Application framework

开发人员也可以完全访问核心应用程序所使用的 API 框架。该应用程序的架构设计简化了组件的重用;任何一个应用程序都可以发布它的功能块并且任何其它的应用程序都可以使用其所发布的功能块(不过得遵循框架的安全性)。同样,该应用程序重用机制也使用户可以方便的替换程序组件。

Developers also have full access to the API framework used by the core application. The architecture design of the application simplifies the reuse of components; any application can publish its function blocks and any other application can use the function blocks it publishes (but the security of the framework must be followed). Similarly, the application reuse mechanism also allows users to easily replace program components.

隐藏在每个应用后面的是一系列的服务和系统, 其中包括;

Behind each application is a series of services and systems, including;

丰富而又可扩展的视图(Views),可以用来构建应用程序, 它包括列表(Lists),网格(Grids),文本框(Text boxes),按钮(Buttons), 甚至可嵌入的 web 浏览器。

Rich and extensible views can be used to build applications, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even embedded web browsers.

内容提供器

Content provider


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