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【速搜问答】并发计算是什么

问答 admin 1个月前 (04-21) 44次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

并发计算(或译为并发处理、共时计算),是一种程序计算的形式,在系统中,至少有两个以上的计算在同时运作,计算结果可能同时发生。用来实现并发系统(Concurrent system)的编程语言与各种算法,统称为并发计算。

Concurrent computing is a form of program computing. In a system, at least two or more computations are running at the same time, and the results may occur at the same time. The programming languages and algorithms used to implement concurrent system are called concurrent computing.

并发计算(英语:Concurrent computing,或译为并发处理、共时计算),是一种程序计算的形式,在系统中,至少有两个以上的计算在同时运作,计算结果可能同时发生。用来实现并发系统(Concurrent system)的编程语言与各种算法,统称为并发计算。

Concurrent computing is a form of program computing. In the system, at least two or more calculations are running at the same time, and the results may occur at the same time. The programming languages and algorithms used to implement concurrent system are called concurrent computing.

概论

An introduction to

并发计算,简单来说,就是将一个计算任务,分区成几个小的部分,让它们同时被计算,之后再汇整计算结果,以完成任务。它跟并行计算(Parallel computing)与分布式计算,有重叠之处,在概念上不同,但常会让人混淆。

Concurrent computing, simply speaking, is to partition a computing task into several small parts, let them be calculated at the same time, and then aggregate the calculation results to complete the task. It overlaps with parallel computing and distributed computing in concept, but it is often confused.

并发计算是一种程序运算的特性,可以被视为是并行运算的进一步抽象,它包涵了时间片这种可以被用来实现虚拟并行运算(pseudoparallelism)的技术,因此在实际的物理运作中,计算过程可能是并行,或非并行的。

Concurrent computing is a feature of program operation, which can be regarded as a further abstraction of parallel operation. It includes time slice, which can be used to realize pseudo parallel operation. Therefore, in the actual physical operation, the computing process may be parallel or non parallel.

并行计算是指,当并发计算的程序,在机器平台上同时被运行的状况,因此,并行计算是一种机器运算的形式之一。分布式计算(Distributed computing)则是并行计算的一个特例,它采用计算机网络来进行同步。

Parallel computing refers to the situation when the program of concurrent computing is running on the machine platform at the same time. Therefore, parallel computing is one of the forms of machine computing. Distributed computing is a special case of parallel computing, which uses computer network to synchronize.

实现并发程序有许多方式,依编程语言与操作系统的支持,可以用进程,或是线程来实现。它可以运行在单一处理器上,将不同的运行步骤分散在不同时间片中运行,以非并行方式循序运算;它也可以用并行计算来实现,将每个进程指定给处理器组中的某个处理器,以单片机多处理器平台,或是透过网络链接的分散平台来实做。

There are many ways to implement concurrent programs. According to the support of programming language and operating system, it can be realized by processes or threads. It can run on a single processor, distribute different running steps in different time slices, and operate in a non parallel way in sequence; it can also be realized by parallel computing, and assign each process to a processor in the processor group, which can be implemented on a single-chip multiprocessor platform, or through a network linked distributed platform.

依照硬件与操作系统的支持,并发计算可以在同一个进程中完成,在同一个进程中以多线程来完成,以多个进程来达成,甚至可以分成数个程序来运行。可以用单处理器的循序计算来实现,也可以采并行计算或分布式计算方式实做。

According to the support of hardware and operating system, concurrent computing can be completed in the same process, in the same process, by multithreading, by multiple processes, or even divided into several programs to run. It can be realized by single processor’s sequential computing, or by parallel computing or distributed computing.

但以并行方式来运作并发程序,并不必然会增进运行效率。因为运行结果可能会因为平台特性而改变,也增加它在设计上的难度。

However, running concurrent programs in a parallel way does not necessarily improve the running efficiency. Because the running result may be changed due to the platform characteristics, it also increases the difficulty in design.


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