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【速搜问答】维基百科是什么

问答 admin 2个月前 (04-17) 57次浏览 已收录 0个评论

汉英对照:
Chinese-English Translation:

维基百科(Wikipedia)是一个网络百科全书项目。特点是自由内容、自由编辑。它是全球网络上最大且最受大众欢迎的参考工具书,名列全球十大最受欢迎的网站。维基百科由非营利组织维基媒体基金会负责营运。 维基百科(英语:Wikipedia,/ˌwɪkᵻˈpiːdiə/ 或 /ˌwɪkiˈpiːdiə/)是一个网络百科全书项目。特点是自由内容、自由编辑。它是全球网络上最大且最受大众欢迎的参考工具书,名列全球十大最受欢迎的网站。维基百科由非营利组织维基媒体基金会负责营运。Wikipedia 是一个混成词,取自网站核心技术“Wiki”和英文中百科全书之意的“encyclopedia”。

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia project. It is characterized by free content and free editing. It is the largest and most popular reference book on the global network, ranking the top 10 most popular websites in the world. Wikipedia is run by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia project. It is characterized by free content and free editing. It is the largest and most popular reference book on the global network, ranking the top 10 most popular websites in the world. Wikipedia is run by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. Wikipedia is a mixed word, which is taken from the core technology of the website “wiki” and the meaning of the English encyclopedia “Encyclopedia”.

吉米·威尔士与拉里·桑格两人的合作下于 2001 年 1 月 13 日在互联网上推出的网站服务是维基百科的前身。1 月 15 日,正式展开网络百科全书计划。桑格提出新词“Wikipedia”

The website service launched on the Internet on January 13, 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger is the predecessor of Wikipedia. On January 15, the online encyclopedia program was officially launched. Sanger put forward the new word “Wikipedia”

创立之初,维基百科的目标是向全人类提供自由的百科全书。希望各地民众用自己选择的语言参与编辑条目。书面印刷的百科全书多由专家主导编辑,再由出版商印刷、销售。

At the beginning of its foundation, Wikipedia aims to provide free encyclopedias for all mankind. It is hoped that people from all over the world will participate in the editing of entries in their own language of choice. Written encyclopedias are mostly edited by experts, then printed and sold by publishers.

维基百科号称属于可自由访问和编辑的全球知识体,这意味维基百科除传统百科全书所收录的信息,也可以收录非学术具有一定媒体关注度的动态事件。

Wikipedia claims to be a global body of knowledge that can be accessed and edited freely, which means that Wikipedia can not only include the information contained in traditional encyclopedia, but also include non academic dynamic events with a certain degree of media attention.

2006 年,杂志《时代》评选的时代年度风云人物“你”中,提到了全球上百万人线上协作维基百科,促进维基百科成长。

In 2006, the magazine “time” selected the person of the year “you”, referring to the global millions of people online collaboration Wikipedia, to promote the growth of Wikipedia.

维基百科是强调 Copyleft 自由内容、协同编辑以及多语版本一个的网络百科全书项目,以互联网和 Wiki 技术作为媒介,已发展为一项世界性的百科全书协作计划。项目由非营利组织维基媒体基金会负责相关的发展事宜。维基百科由全球各地的志愿者们合作编撰而成,整个计划已收录了超过 3,000 万篇条目,其中英语维基百科以超过 450 万篇条目在数量上位居首位。

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia project that emphasizes copyleft free content, collaborative editing and multilingual version. With the Internet and Wiki technology as the media, Wikipedia has developed into a worldwide encyclopedia collaboration project. Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization, is responsible for the development of the project. Wikipedia is compiled by volunteers from all over the world. The whole project has included more than 30 million entries, of which English Wikipedia ranks first with more than 4.5 million entries.

维基百科允许访问网站的用户自由阅览和修改绝大部分页面的内容,整个网站的总编辑次数已超过 10 亿次。截至 2012 年 8 月,整个维基百科计划总共有 285 种独立运作的语言版本,且已被普遍认为是规模最大且最流行的网络百科全书。根据知名的 Alexa Internet 其网络流量统计数字指出全世界总共有近 3.65 亿名民众使用维基百科,且维基百科也是全球浏览人数排名第五高的网站,同时也是全世界最大的无广告网站。根据估计,维基百科每个月便有将近 2.7 亿的美国人民前往该网站浏览。

Wikipedia allows users to freely read and modify the content of most pages, and the total number of editors of the entire website has exceeded 1 billion. As of August 2012, there are 285 independent language versions of the entire Wikipedia program, and it has been widely recognized as the largest and most popular online encyclopedia. According to the well-known Alexa Internet network traffic statistics, there are nearly 365 million people using Wikipedia in the world, and Wikipedia is also the fifth most visited website in the world and the largest advertising free website in the world. It is estimated that nearly 270 million Americans visit Wikipedia every month.

由于维基百科能够十分迅速地整理出与最近发生事件相关的信息,并且任何人都能够深入整理数据内容,这使得许多人也渐渐将维基百科视为一个新闻来源。同时为方便一般学生或者浏览群众能够简单了解条目的内容,维基百科中的绝大多数条目都尽可能以简单的话语来解释复杂的概念。

Because Wikipedia can quickly sort out information related to recent events, and anyone can deeply sort out the data content, many people gradually regard Wikipedia as a news source. At the same time, in order to facilitate the general students or browsing the masses to understand the content of the items, most of the items in Wikipedia try to explain complex concepts with simple words.

随着维基百科的普及,维基新闻、维基教科书等姐妹计划也随之应运而生。尽管维基百科在其官方政策上坚决拥护可供查证中立观点这两项要求,维基百科仍因任何人都能参与编辑的特性受到了社会上许多人士的批评,其中以条目的质量、信息的准确度、呈现态度的客观性以及无法提供一致的准确内容为多。

With the popularity of Wikipedia, sister programs such as Wikinews and wikitextbooks have emerged. Despite Wikipedia’s strong support for the two requirements of verifiable neutrality in its official policy, Wikipedia has been criticized by many people in the society because of the fact that anyone can participate in editing. Among them, the quality of the item, the accuracy of the information, the objectivity of the presentation attitude and the inability to provide consistent and accurate content are more.

部分人士指称问题在于维基百科所采用的 Wiki 技术,他们认为任何人都可以编辑维基百科内容这种作法本身就是维基百科最大且无法改变的弊病,这般情况下破坏者能够轻易在易引起争纷的政治和宗教条目中添加虚假内容、删除正确信息或者任意添加偏见性内容。

Some people claim that the problem lies in the Wiki technology adopted by Wikipedia. They believe that anyone can edit Wikipedia content, which is the biggest and unchangeable disadvantage of Wikipedia. In this case, the destroyer can easily add false content, delete correct information or add biased content in controversial political and religious items.

而维基百科创始人吉米·威尔士以及英国牛津大学教授乔纳森·齐特林(Jonathan Zittrain)等知识分子对于条目准确性的争议则认为,这在一定程度上源自他人对于维基百科的偏见。为尽可能解决各界对于条目质量的质疑,维基百科也陆续提出许多相对应的方法与指引来保障文章的质量,同时希望协同编辑时能够列出足以供他人查证、审核及确认的数据源。

The controversy over the accuracy of Wikipedia’s entries, which is argued by the founders of Wikipedia, Jimmy Wales, and Oxford University professor Jonathan zitrain, is partly due to other people’s prejudice against Wikipedia. In order to solve the question of item quality, Wikipedia has put forward many corresponding methods and guidelines to ensure the quality of the article. At the same time, it hopes to list enough data sources for others to verify, review and confirm when cooperating with editors.

但批评者也提到,维基百科上的许多信息都是由那些崇尚流行文化等事物的民众为编写自己喜爱的项目而成,这意味着许多情况下网站十分容易受到各种理由而来的人为破坏;批评者也同时指出,就算一些报告证实许多条目在遭到破坏后能很快被轻易恢复,但维基百科内仍包含有大量未经证实或相互矛盾的信息。

But critics also pointed out that many of the information on Wikipedia is created by people who advocate popular culture and other things to write their favorite projects, which means that in many cases, the website is very vulnerable to human destruction for various reasons; critics also pointed out that even if some reports prove that many items can be easily recovered after being damaged, wiki The encyclopedia still contains a lot of unconfirmed or contradictory information.

不过《自然》在 2005 年的调查中认为,维基百科在科学文章这一领域与作为传统百科全书代表的《大英百科全书》有着相似的精确度,但两者在内容上都有一定程度上的“严重缺失”

However, according to the 2005 survey of nature, Wikipedia has similar accuracy in the field of scientific articles with Encyclopedia Britannica, which is the representative of traditional encyclopedia, but both of them are seriously lacking in content

截至 2015 年 12 月维基百科一共有 280 种语言版本,其中英语超过五百万,瑞典语、德语、荷兰语、法语、瓦瑞瓦瑞语、俄语、宿务语、意大利语、越南语和波兰语这十一个语言版本已经有超过 100 万篇条目,快接近百万的为日语。中文快接近 86 万另外还有 40 多个语言版本的超过 10 万篇文章和超过 120 个语言版本的维基百科有多于 10000 个条目。其中在所有维基百科计划中规模最大的语言版本为英语维基百科,英语之后依照条目数量安排的前五名顺序分别是荷兰语维基百科、德语维基百科、瑞典语维基百科以及法语维基百科。而根据 Alexa 的统计指出,英语维基百科便占所有维基百科累计浏览量的 54%左右,而剩余的其他语言版本的浏览量由大到小则分别是日语维基百科(10%)、德语维基百科(8%)、西班牙语维基百科(5%)、俄语维基百科(4%)、法语维基百科(4%)和意大利语维基百科(3%)。

As of December 2015, Wikipedia has a total of 280 language versions, of which English is more than 5 million. There are more than 1 million entries in the eleven language versions of Swedish, German, Dutch, French, warewari, Russian, Cebu, Italian, Vietnamese and polish, and nearly one million are Japanese. Chinese is close to 860000, and there are more than 100000 articles in more than 40 languages and more than 10000 Wikipedia entries in more than 120 languages. Among all the Wikipedia programs, the largest language version is English Wikipedia. After English, the top five versions are Dutch Wikipedia, German Wikipedia, Swedish Wikipedia and French Wikipedia according to the number of entries. According to Alexa’s statistics, English Wikipedia accounts for the total number of visitors to Wikipedia About 54% of the visitors are Japanese Wikipedia (10%), German Wikipedia (8%), Spanish Wikipedia (5%), Russian Wikipedia (4%), French Wikipedia (4%) and Italian Wikipedia (3%).

由于维基百科是基于互联网上运行的,因此来自全球各地的贡献者可能在浏览相同语言版本的维基百科时却使用不同的方言,又或者受到不同国家的习惯用语影响而使得彼此用语出现些微差异。这些差异可能导致条目的文字拼写或者用法习惯上出现冲突(例如英语用户就“color”和“colour”等拼法或者是中文用户的繁简体转换问题等等),或者是受到不同地点社会环境的影响下使得对于条目内容的观点不一。另外尽管在各种语言版本的维基百科之中也有如同“中立的观点”般普遍施行的方针,然而许多语言版本的维基百科仍然必须依照自己主要使用用户的国家其法律限制,这使得各个维基百科计划在方针和作法上并非一致。其中最为明显的例子,则是各个维基百科必须依照相关法律限制决定是否能够根据许可而采纳自由内容或者合理使用的内容。

Because Wikipedia is based on the Internet, contributors from all over the world may use different dialects when browsing Wikipedia in the same language version, or they may be influenced by the idioms of different countries, which makes their expressions slightly different. These differences may lead to a conflict in the spelling or usage of the entry (for example, English users’ spelling of “color” and “colour” or the traditional and simplified conversion of Chinese users, etc.), or different opinions on the content of the entry under the influence of the social environment in different places. In addition, although there is a general policy of “neutral point of view” in various language versions of Wikipedia, many language versions of Wikipedia still have to follow the legal restrictions of the countries where they mainly use users, which makes the policies and practices of various Wikipedia plans inconsistent. The most obvious example is that Wikipedia must decide whether it can adopt free content or reasonably use content according to the permission according to the relevant legal restrictions.

威尔士则对于维基百科发展各种语言版本表示支持,并提到“应该要尽可能让全世界所有人都能够使用他们自己的语言,一同努力创造并且充分推广的高质量之自由百科全书”。不过虽然每个语言版本或多或少都有自己独立的功能与作法,但是在其上仍然会有相关组织负责监督维基百科计划的运行,其中包括由元维基负责协调各个维基百科的运作并且提供所有语言版本维基百科重要统计数据的维护工作,另外还有维基媒体基金会负责维护维基百科以及与之相关的计划运作。此外元维基也提供了每个维基百科应该都要有之条目的列表,其内容涉及到包括传记、历史、地理、社会、文化、科学、技术、食品和数学等主题的基本内容。不过另一方面当某个特定语言版本的维基百科有相关条目的文章时,并不意味着另外一个语言版本的维基百科也能有同样质量的文章内容,例如一些位于美国的小城镇条目便可能仅有英语版本提供参考。甚至也有些条目或许能够于与之相关语言的维基百科中创建,但并不意味着便能够满足其他语言版本维基百科的“关注度”标准。

Wales supported the development of various language versions of Wikipedia, and said that “we should make it possible for everyone in the world to use their own language and work together to create and fully promote a high-quality free encyclopedia”. However, although each language version has its own functions and practices more or less, there will still be relevant organizations in charge of supervising the operation of the Wikipedia program, including metawiki, which is responsible for coordinating the operation of each Wikipedia and providing the maintenance of important statistics of all language versions of Wikipedia, as well as the Wikimedia Foundation Wikipedia and its associated program operations. In addition, metawiki also provides a list of items that every Wikipedia should have, which covers the basic contents of topics such as biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, food and mathematics. But on the other hand, when a certain language version of Wikipedia has articles of relevant items, it does not mean that another language version of Wikipedia can also have articles of the same quality. For example, some small town items in the United States may only have English version for reference. Even some items may be created in Wikipedia in the relevant language, but it does not mean that they can meet the “attention” standard of Wikipedia in other languages.

绝大多数语言版本的维基百科其翻译其他语言版本的文章多只占一小部分,其中主要原因在于大多数维基百科计划并不允许用户直接张贴全自动翻译的文章内容,但是一些维基百科社区也往往鼓励编辑用户以人为的方式翻译其他语言版本的内容。(中文维基百科则鼓励翻译,但要遵循相应的规定)而在维基百科计划中如果条目内容也存在于其他语言版本的维基百科时,便能通过“跨维基链接”的技术于同一页面的左侧或右侧列表中链接数个不同语言的条目内容。另外在多媒体使用这一部分,各个语言版本的维基百科接能够使用维基共享资源的图片、声音与视频等媒材。

Most language versions of Wikipedia translate only a small part of the articles in other languages. The main reason is that most Wikipedia programs do not allow users to directly post the articles translated automatically. However, some Wikipedia communities often encourage users to translate the articles in other languages in a human way. (Chinese Wikipedia encourages translation, but should follow the corresponding regulations.) in the Wikipedia plan, if the item content also exists in other language versions of Wikipedia, you can link several items in different languages in the list on the left or right of the same page through the “cross wikilink” technology. In addition, in the multimedia use part, Wikipedia in various languages can use pictures, sounds, videos and other media of wikishare resources.

优良特色

Fine features

经过一定时间发展的维基百科一般都会产生“优良条目”“特色条目”(各个语言版本代表符号不同,图为中文维基百科的优良条目和特色条目)。优良条目和特色条目是通过投票选举产生。大多数特色条目是由优良条目升级达到的。虽然真正 100%符合维基百科作品的条目实际上并不存在,但特色条目依然是作为该语言维基百科中,通过多数人认可为比一般条目要更为完整、优秀的作品。它们一般是众多维基人共同协作的甜美果实,也可以是部分人独立完成的华彩篇章。

After a certain period of time, Wikipedia will generally produce “excellent items” and “featured items” (each language version represents different symbols, and the figure shows the excellent items and featured items of Chinese Wikipedia). Excellent items and characteristic items are elected by voting. Most of the featured items are upgraded by good items. Although the items that are 100% true to Wikipedia works do not exist in fact, the featured items are still works that are more complete and excellent than the general items recognized by most people in the language Wikipedia. They are usually the sweet fruits of the cooperation of many Wikileaks, or the colorful chapters completed by some people independently.

传播媒介

Media

由于维基百科的内容是根据开放式许可来作为许可协议,这意味着任何人都可以重复发表维基百科内的文章,同时重新发布内容时也不需要付费。除了维基百科自身网站之外,维基百科的内容不论是于在线或者是脱机都曾经使用不同媒体来向外发表,这包括有:

Because Wikipedia’s content is licensed under an open license, it means that anyone can republish articles within Wikipedia without paying for them. In addition to Wikipedia’s own website, Wikipedia’s content, whether online or offline, has been published using different media, including:

网站内容:数以千计的“镜像站点”纷纷再次发布维基百科的条目内容,有些网站甚至也能够提供维基百科中所引用的参考来源。另外在维基百科推出与移动设备友好界

Website content: thousands of “mirror sites” have published Wikipedia’s entry content again, and some websites can even provide reference sources cited in Wikipedia. In addition, launched in Wikipedia and mobile device friendly community


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